Toplumsal sınıf

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Toplumsal sınıf toplumlar veya kültürler içindeki bireyler veya gruplar arasında hiyerarşik farklılığı (veya katmanlaşmayı) ifade etmektedir. Genellikle bireyler sınıf içinde ekonomik konumlarına ve katmanlaşma sistemi içinde benzer siyasi ve ekonomik ilgilerine göre gruplaşmaktadırlar.

Çoğu toplum, özellikle ulus devletlerin toplumsal sınıflaşma özelliği gösterdiği görülmektedir.[1]. Ancak sınıf evrensel bir görüngü değildir. Birçok avcı-toplayıcı toplumda toplumsal sınıf yoktur, sıklıkla sürekli liderleri olmaz ve toplum üyelerini hiyerarşik güç yapıları içinde bölmekten kaçınırlar.[2]

İleri okuma listesi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Archer, Louise et al. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion (RoutledgeFalmer, 2003) (ISBN 0-415-27644-6)
  • Barbrook, Richard (2006). The Class of the New (paperback bas.). London: OpenMute. 0-9550664-7-6. http://www.theclassofthenew.net. 
  • Bertaux, Daniel & Thomson, Paul; Pathways to Social Class: A Qualitative Approach to Social Mobility (Clarendon Press, 1997)
  • Bisson, Thomas N.; Cultures of Power: Lordship, Status, and Process in Twelfth-Century Europe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995)
  • Blau, Peter & Duncan Otis D.; The American Occupational Structure (1967) classic study of structure and mobility
  • Brady, David "Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty" Social Forces Vol. 81 No.3, (March 2003), pp. 715–751 (abstract online in Project Muse).
  • Broom, Leonard & Jones, F. Lancaster; Opportunity and Attainment in Australia (1977)
  • Cohen, Lizabeth; Consumer's Republic, (Knopf, 2003) (ISBN 0-375-40750-2). (Historical analysis of the working out of class in the United States).
  • Croix, Geoffrey de Ste.; "Class in Marx's Conception of History, Ancient and Modern", New Left Review, No. 146, (1984), pp. 94–111 (good study of Marx's concept).
  • Dargin, Justin http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/IL06Ag01.html "The Birth of Russia's Energy Class" [Asia Times] (2007) (good study of contemporary class formation in Russia, post communism)
  • Day, Gary; Class, (Routledge, 2001) (ISBN 0-415-18222-0)
  • Eichar, Douglas M.; Occupation and Class Consciousness in America (Greenwood Press, 1989)
  • Fantasia, Rick; Levine, Rhonda F.; McNall, Scott G., eds.; Bringing Class Back in Contemporary and Historical Perspectives (Westview Press, 1991)
  • Featherman, David L. & Hauser Robert M.; Opportunity and Change (1978).
  • Fotopoulos, Takis, Class Divisions Today: The Inclusive Democracy approach, Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, No. 2, (July 2000)
  • Fussell, Paul; Class (a painfully accurate guide through the American status system), (1983) (ISBN 0-345-31816-1)
  • Giddens, Anthony; The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies, (London: Hutchinson, 1981).
  • Giddens, Anthony & Mackenzie, Gavin (Eds.), Social Class and the Division of Labour. Essays in Honour of Ilya Neustadt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Goldthorne, John & Erikson Robert; The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Society (1992)
  • Grusky, David B. ed.; Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective (2001) scholarly articles
  • Hazelrigg, Lawrence E. & Lopreato, Joseph; Class, Conflict, and Mobility: Theories and Studies of Class Structure (1972).
  • Hymowitz, Kay; Marriage and Caste in America: Separate and Unequal Families in a Post-Marital Age (2006) ISBN 1-56663-709-0
  • Kaeble, Helmut; Social Mobility in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Europe and America in Comparative Perspective (1985)
  • Mahalingam, Ramaswami; "Essentialism, Culture, and Power: Representations of Social Class" Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 59, (2003), pp. 733+ on India
  • Mahony, Pat & Zmroczek, Christine; Class Matters: 'Working-Class' Women's Perspectives on Social Class (Taylor & Francis, 1997)
  • Manza, Jeff & Brooks, Clem; Social Cleavages and Political Change: Voter Alignments and U.S. Party Coalitions (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • Manza, Jeff; "Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal" Annual Review of Sociology, (2000) pp. 297+
  • Manza, Jeff; Hout, Michael & Brooks Clem; "Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation?" Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, (1995)
  • Marmot, Michael; The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity (2004)
  • Marx, Karl & Engels, Frederick; The Communist Manifesto, (1848). (The key statement of class conflict as the driver of historical change).
  • Merriman, John M.; Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1979)
  • Ostrander, Susan A.; Women of the Upper Class (Temple University Press, 1984).
  • Owensby, Brian P.; Intimate Ironies: Modernity and the Making of Middle-Class Lives in Brazil (Stanford University, 1999).
  • Pakulski, Jan & Waters, Malcolm; The Death of Class (Sage, 1996). (rejection of the relevance of class for modern societies)
  • Payne, Geoff; The Social Mobility of Women: Beyond Male Mobility Models (1990)
  • Raico, Ralph; "Classical Liberal Exploitation Theory: A Comment on Professor Liggio's Paper", Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol.1, No.3, pp. 179–183, (1977).
  • Savage, Mike; Class Analysis and Social Transformation (London: Open University Press, 2000).
  • Sennett, Richard & Cobb, Jonathan; The Hidden Injuries of Class, (Vintage, 1972) (classic study of the subjective experience of class).
  • Siegelbaum, Lewis H. & Suny, Ronald; eds.; Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity. (Cornell University Press, 1994). Russia 1870-1940
  • Sorokin, Pitrim; Social Mobility (New York, 1927)
  • Warner, W. Lloyd et al. Social Class in America: A Manual of Procedure for the Measurement of Social Status (1949).
  • Wlkowitz, Daniel J.; Working with Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1999).
  • "Class, Status and Party", Max Weber, in e.g. Gerth, Hans and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, (Oxford University Press, 1958). (Weber's key statement of the multiple nature of stratification).
  • Weinburg, Mark; "The Social Analysis of Three Early 19th century French liberals: Say, Comte, and Dunoyer", Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 45–63, (1978).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; The Retreat from Class: A New 'True' Socialism, (Schocken Books, 1986) (ISBN 0-8052-7280-1) and (Verso Classics, January 1999) reprint with new introduction (ISBN 1-85984-270-4).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; "Labor, the State, and Class Struggle", Monthly Review, Vol. 49, No. 3, (1997).
  • Wouters, Cas.; "The Integration of Social Classes." Journal of Social History. Volume 29, Issue 1, (1995). pp 107+. (on social manners)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; The Debate on Classes (Verso, 1990). (neo-Marxist)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Wright, Erik Olin ed. Approaches to Class Analysis (2005). (scholarly articles)
  • Zmroczek, Christine & Mahony, Pat (Eds.), Women and Social Class: International Feminist Perspectives. (London: UCL Press 1999)

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Dipnot[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ Habermas, J. (2006). "the European Nation State - Its Achievments and Its Limits. On the Past and Future Sovereignty and Citizenship", in G. Balakrishan (ed.) Mapping the Nation. London: Vernon. 281 - 294
  2. ^ Gowdy, John (2006) "Hunter-gatherers and the mythology of the market," in Richard B. Lee and Richard H. Daly (eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, pp.391-394. New York: Cambridge University Press