Kayaç türü listesi

Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Gezinti kısmına atla Arama kısmına atla

petrologların tanıdığı ve tanımladığı kayaç türü listesi. Kayaç olmayan türler ile eski kayaç türlerinin adları ek olarak verilmiştir.

Magmatik kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. Diameter of view is 8 cm.
Andezit - bir ortaç yüzey kayacı
Alkali feldspat granit - a granitoid in which at least 90% of the total feldspar is in the form of alkali feldspar
Anortozit - an intrusive igneous felsic rock composed predominantly of plagioclase
Aplit - a very fine grained intrusive igneous rock composed of quartz and feldspar
Bazalt - mafik bileşimli yüzey kayacı
Adakit - düşük miktarda itriyum ve iterbiyum içeren bir bazalt sınıfı
Havaiit - a class of basalts formed from ocean island (hot spot) magmatizma.
Bazanit - a volcanic rock of mafic composition; essentially a silica-undersaturated basalt
Boninit - baskın olarak piroksen içeren magnezyumca zengin bazalt
Dasit - a felsic to intermediate volcanic rock containing hornblende and with plagioclase > orthoclase
Diyabaz ya da dolerit - an intrusive mafic rock forming dykes or sills
Diyorit - a coarse-grained intermediate plutonic rock composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and/or amphibole
Dünit - a phaneritic ultramafic rock composed of more than 90% olivine, usually forsteritic
Essexite - a silica undersaturated mafic plutonic rock (essentially a foid-bearing gabbro)
Foidolite - a plutonic igneous rock composed of >90% feldspathoid minerals
Gabro - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of pyroxene and plagioclase basically equivalent to basalt
Granit - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of orthoclase, plagioclase and quartz
Granodiyorit - a granitic plutonic rock with plagioclase > orthoclase
Granofir - a subvolcanic intrusive rock of granitic composition
Harzburjit - a variety of peridotite; an ultramafic cumulate rock
Hornblendit - a mafic or ultramafic cumulate rock dominated by >90% hornblende
Hiyaloklastit - a volcanic rock composed primarily of glasses and glassy tuff
İzlandit - a volcanic rock
İgnimbrit - a fragmental volcanic rock
Ijolite - a very rare silica-undersaturated plutonic rock
Karbonatit - a rare igneous rock composed of >50% carbonate minerals
Karnokit - a type of granite containing orthopyroxene
Enderbit - a variety of charnockite
Kimberlit - nadir ultramafik, ultrapotassik yüzey kayacı ve elmas kaynağı
Komatit - çok yüksek miktarda MgO içeren eski bir ultramafik yüzey kayacı
Lamproyit - an ultrapotassic volcanic rock
Lamprofir - an ultramafic, ultrapotassic intrusive rock dominated by mafic phenocrysts in a feldspar groundmass
Latit - a silica undersaturated form of andesite
Lherzolit - an ultramafic rock, essentially a peridotite
Monzogranit - a silica undersaturated granite with <5% normative quartz
Monzonit - a plutonic rock with <5% normative quartz
Nefelin siyenit - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with nepheline replacing orthoclase
Neflinit - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with >90% nepheline
Norit - a hypersthene bearing gabbro
Obsidiyen - a type of volcanic glass
Pegmatit - an igneous rock (or metamorphic rock) with giant sized crystals
Peridotit - a plutonic or cumulate ultramafic rock composed of olivine and pyroxene
Fonolit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially similar to nepheline syenite
Pikrit - an olivine-bearing basalt
Porfiri - a rock, usually granitic, with a porphyritic texture
Pümis - a fine grained, extremely vesicular volcanic rock
Piroksenit - %90'dan fazla piroksen bileşimli kaba taneli derinlik kayası
Kuvars diyorit - %5'ten fazla modal kuvars içeren diyorit
Kuvars monzonit - bir ortaç bileşimli derinlik kayası, essentially a monzonite with 5-10% modal quartz
Riyodasit - a felsic volcanic rock which is intermediate between a rhyolite and a dacite
Riyolit - bir felsik yüzey kayacı
Komendit - bir peralkalin riyolit
Pantellerit - amfibol fenokristaller içeren bir alkalin riyolit-riyodasit
Skorya - an extremely vesicular mafic volcanic rock
Sovit - kaba taneli karbonatit kayacı
Siyenit - baskın olarak ortoklaz feldispat içeren bir derinlik kayacı; bir tür granitoid
Takilit - essentially bir basaltik cam
Tefrit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock
Tonalit - baskın olarak plajioklaz içeren bir granitoid
Trakiyandesit - bir alkalin ortaç yüzey kayacı
Benmoreit - sodic trakiandezit
Bazaltik trakiyandezit
Müjearit - sodic basaltic trachyandesite
Şoşonit - potasyumca zengin bazaltik trakiandezit
Trakit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially a feldspathoid-bearing rhyolite
Troktolit - a plutonic ultramafic rock containing olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase
Trondhjemite - a form of tonalite where plagioclase-group feldspar is oligoclase
Tüf - a fine grained volcanic rock formed from volcanic ash
Vebsterit - a type of pyroxenite, composed of clinoproxene and orthopyroxene
Vehrlit - an ultramafic plutonic or cumulate rock, a type of peridotite, composed of olivine and clinopyroxene

Tortul kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Ana madde: Tortul kayaçlar
Batı Virginia'da bitümlü kömür damarı
Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Fas
Türbidit (Gorgoglione Fliş), Miyosen, Güney İtalya
Arjillit - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles
Arkoz - a sedimentary rock similar to sandstone
Banded iron formation - a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of iron oxide minerals
Breş - a sedimentary or tectonic rock composed of fragments of other, broken rocks
Tebeşir - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of coccolith fossils
Çört - silika bileşimli ince taneli bir kimyasal tortul kayaç
Kiltaşı - kilden oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Kömür - organik maddede oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Konglomera - çeşitli kayaçların bol miktarda yuvarlatılmış parçalarınıdan oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Coquina - a sedimentary carbonate rock formed by accumulation of abundant shell fossils and fragments
Diamictite - a poorly sorted conglomerate
Diyatomit - diyatom taşıllarından oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Dolomit ya da dolotaşı - a carbonate rock composed of the mineral dolomite +/- calcite
Evaporit - a chemical sedimentary rock formed by accumulation of minerals after evaporation; kaya tuzu (halitit) ve jips kayacı içeren varyasyonlar
Flint - bir çört çeşidi
Grovak - an immature sandstone with quartz, feldspar and rock fragments within a clay matrix
Gritstone - essentially a coarse sandstone formed from small pebbles
Itacolumite - porous, yellow-orange sandstone which is flexible if cut into thin strips
Jaspillite - an iron-rich chemical sedimentary rock similar to chert or banded iron formation
Laterite - a residual sedimentary rock formed from a parent rock under tropical conditions
Linyit - a sedimentary rock composed of organic material; otherwise known as Brown Coal
Kireçtaşı - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals
Marl - a limestone with a considerable proportion of silicate material
Çamurtaşı - a sedimentary rock composed of clay and muds
Oil shale - a sedimentary rock composed dominantly of organic material
Oolit - bir çeşit kimyasal tortul kireçtaşı
Kumtaşı - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Şeyl - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Silttaşı - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Traverten - demir oksit ve kalsit içeren bir tortul kayaç
Türbidit - a particular sequence of sedimentary rocks which form within the deep ocean environment
Vaketaşı - a matrix-supported carbonate sedimentary rock.

Metamorfik kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Fillit
Banded gneiss with a dike of granite orthogneiss
Mermer
Kuvarsit
Manhattan Şist, New York'un güneydoğusundan
Sleyt
Antrasit - bir tür kömür
Amfibolit - ağırlıklı olarak amfibol içeren bir metamorfik kayaç
Mavişist - sodalı amfibol bileşimli belirgin mavi renge sahip bir metamorfik kayaç
Kataklasit - faylanma ile oluşan bir kayaç
Eklojit - ultra-yüksek derecede başkalaşmış bazalt ya da gabro; ayrıca metamorfik kayaçların bir fasiyes türü
Gnays - kaba taneli bir metamorfik kayaç
Gossan - the product of the weathering of a sulfide rock or ore body
Granülit - a high grade metamorphic rock formed from basalt; also a facies of metamorphic rocks
Yeşilşist - baskın olarak yeşil amfibol içeren bir mafik metamorfik kayaç
Greenstone
Hornfels - bir magmatik kayaç tarafından ısıtılarak oluşmuş bir metamorfik kayaç
Mermer - başkalaşım geçirmiş kireçtaşı
Migmatit - a high grade metamorphic rock verging upon melting into a magma
Milonit - a metamorphic rock formed by shearing
Metapelit - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of clay-rich (siltstone) sedimentary rock
Fillit - a low grade metamorphic rock composed mostly of micaceous minerals
Metapsammite - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of quartz-rich (sandstone) sedimentary rock
Pseudotachylite - a glass formed by melting within a fault via friction
Kuvarsit - genellikle %95'ten fazla kuvars içeren başkalaşmış kumtaşı
Şist - a low to medium grade metamorphic rock
Serpantinit - serpantin minerallerince zengin başkalaşmış bir ultramafik kayaç
Skarn - bir metasomatik kayaç
Sleyt - a low grade metamorphic rock formed from shale or silts
Suevite - a rock formed by partial melting during a meteorite impact
Talk karbonat - a metamorphosed ultramafic rock with talc as an essential constituent; similar to a serpentinite
Soapstone - essentially a talc schist
Beyazşist - a high pressure metamorphic rock containing talc and kyanite

Specific varieties of rocks[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

The following are terms for rocks that are not petrographically or genetically distinct but are defined according to various other criteria; most are specific classes of other rocks, or altered versions of existing rocks. Some archaic and vernacular terms for rocks are also included.

Adamellit - a variety of quartz monzonite
Appinite - a group of varieties of lamprophyre, mostly rich in hornblende
Afanit - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means
Borolanit - a variety of nepheline syenite from Loch Borralan, Scotland
Blue Granite - essentially larvikite, a monzonite
Epidosit - a type of metasomatite; essentially altered basalt
Felsit - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means
Flint - typically a form of chert, jasper, or tuff
Ganister - a Cornish term for a palaeosol formed on sandstone
Ijolite - a silica-undersaturated plutonic rock associated with nepheline syenites
Jadeitite - a very rare rock formed by concentration of jadeite pyroxene; a form of serpentinite
Jasperoid - a hematite-silica metasomatite analogous to a skarn
Kenyte - a variety of phonolite, first found on Mount Kenya
Vogesite - a variety of lamprophyre
Larvikite - a variety of monzonite with microperthitic ternary feldspars from Larvik, Norway
Litchfieldite - a metamorphosed nepheline syenite occurrence near Litchfield, Maine
Luxullianite - a tourmaline-bearing granite with a peculiar texture, occurring at Luxulyan, Cornwall, England
Mangerite - a hypersthene-bearing monzonite
Minette - a variety of lamprophyre
Novaculite - a chert formation found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas
Pirolit - a chemical analogue considered to theoretically represent the earth's upper mantle
Rapakivi granite - a granite which exhibits the peculiar rapakivi texture
Rhomb porphyry - a type of latite with euhedral rhombic phenocrysts of feldspar
Shonkinite - melitilic and kalsititic rocks
Takonit - banded iron formation, primarily used in the United States of America
Teschenite - essentially a silica undersaturated, analcime bearing gabbro
Theralite - essentially a nepheline gabbro
Variolite - devitrified glass

Ayrıca bakınız[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]