- 1 Çıkış (1950–1952)
- 2 Yükselen yıldız (1953)
- 3 Conflicts with 20th Century-Fox and marriage to Joe DiMaggio (1954–1955)
- 4 Critical acclaim and marriage to Arthur Miller (1956–1959)
- 5 Career decline and personal difficulties (1960–1962)
- 6 Death
- 7 Screen persona and reception
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Filmography
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
Çıkış (1950–1952)[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Monroe 1950'de yayınlanmış altı filmde göründü. Üç Ahbap Çavuşlar Elmas Peşinde, Zorlu Yol, Boksörün Aşkı ve Ateş Topu filmlerinin küçük bir parçası oldu. Ayrıca eleştirel beğeni almış olan iki filmde de küçük görünümlerle yer aldı: John Huston'ın suç filmi Elmas Hırsızları ve Joseph Mankiewicz'in draması Perde Açılıyor. Birincisinde, Monroe yaşlı bir suçlunun metresi Angela'yı oynadı. Sadece beş dakika ekranda gözükmesine rağmen, Photoplay dergisi onun hakkında bahsetti ve Spoto'ya göre "film modelinden ciddi bir aktrise doğru etkin bir şekilde oynadı". Perde Açılıyor'da Monroe saf genç oyuncu Bayan Caswell'i oynadı.
Monroe'nun bu rollerdeki başarısını takiben, temsilcisi Johnny Hyde Aralık 1950'de 20th Century-Fox ile yedi yıllık sözleşme için görüştü. Hyde günler sonra kalp krizinden öldü. Monroe üzüntüsüne rağmen 1951 yılında daha fazla görünürlük kazandı. Mart'ta 23. Akademi Ödülleri'nde sunuculuk yaptı ve Eylül ayında Collier's dergisi onun tam boy bir profilini yayınlayan ilk ulusal dergi oldu. Dört düşük bütçeli filmde yardımcı rollerde oynadı: MGM draması Büyük Haber ve Fox için üç orta derecede başarılı komedi, Genç Hissetmek, Aşk Yuvası ve Boşanma Oyunu. Spoto'ya göre, dört filmin hepsi de onu "aslında seksi bir süs" olarak gösterdi ancak Monroe performanslarıyla eleştirmenlerden övgü aldı: New York Times'dan Bosley Crowther, Genç Hissetmek'teki performansını "süper" olarak nitelendirdi ve Los Angeles Daily News'den Ezra Goodman, Aşk Yuvası'ndaki performansı için "geleceğin en parlak aktrislerden biri" yazdı. Oyunculuk becerilerini daha da geliştirmek için Monroe, Michael Chekhov ve pandomimci Lotte Goslar ile ders almaya başladı. Bu sırada izleyicilerle olan popülerliği de artıyordu: hayranlarından haftada birkaç bin posta mektubu aldı ve Kore Savaşı'ndaki asker tercihlerini yansıtan Stars and Stripes ordu gazetesi tarafından "1951 yılının Miss Cheesecake'i" ilan edildi. Özel hayatında Monroe, yönetmen Elia Kazan'la bir ilişki içindeydi, ayrıca yönetmen Nicholas Ray ve oyuncu Yul Brynner ve Peter Lawford da dahil olmak üzere birkaç kişiyle kısa bir süre birliktelik yaşadı.
Monroe, Fox ile olan sözleşmesinin ikinci yılında en çok kazanan kadın oyuncu oldu. Dedikodu yazarı Florabel Muir, Monroe'yu 1952 yılının "medyanın ilgi odağı olan genç ve güzel kadını" seçti ve Hedda Hopper onu "gişeyi kırıp geçen" bir "cheesecake queen" olarak adlandırdı. Şubat ayında Hollywood Foreign Press Association tarafından "en iyi genç gişe şahsiyeti" seçildi ve dönemin en ünlü spor şahsiyetlerinden biri olan emekli New York Yankees üyesi Joe DiMaggio ile halk arasında oldukça popüler bir ilişkiye başladı. Ertesi ay bir röportajında, 1949 yılında takvimde yayınlanmış çıplak resimler için poz verdiğini açıkladığında skandal koptu. Stüdyo fotoğrafları bir kaç hafta önce öğrenmişti ve oyunculuk hayatına olası korkunç etkiler içeriyordu. Stüdyo ve Monroe, onun bu pozları korkunç mali durumu için verdiğini vurgulayarak, pozlar hakkında açıkça konuşmaya karar verdi. Bu strateji ona halkın sempatisini kazanmada ve filmlerine olan ilginin artmasında başarılı oldu; ertesi ay "Hollywood'un Konuştuğu" başlığı altında Life dergisine kapak oldu. O yıl Monroe, Miss America Geçidi'nde Grand Marshal olarak yer aldığında dekolteli giyinerek diğer tanıtım numarasıyla, itibarına yeni seks sembolü olarak ekleme yaptı. Dedikodu yazarı Earl Wilson onun genellikle iç çamaşırı giymediğini belirtti.
Seksi cazibesinin getirdiği popülariteden bağımsız olarak, Monroe oyunculuk marifetlerini daha çok sunmak istedi ve 1952 yazında ticari olarak başarılı iki dram filminde yer aldı. İlki RKO stüdyolarına kiralandığı ve balık konservesi fabrikası işçisini oynadığı Fritz Lang'ın İki Sevgi Arasında filmi oldu; hazırlanmak için Monterey'de ki gerçek bir balık konserve fabrikasında zaman harcadı.  Filmdeki performansıyla ilgili olumlu eleştiriler aldı: The Hollywood Reporter dergisi onun hakkında "Mükemmel yorumu ile başrol statüsünü hak ediyor" yazdı ve Variety ise "kolay verimliliği onun popüler olmasını çocuk oyuncağı haline getiriyor" yazdı. İkinci filmi ise zihinsel açıdan dengesiz bir bebek bakıcısını oynadığı ve yapımcı Darryl F. Zanuck'un onu daha ağır dramatik bir rolde yeteneklerini sınamak için atadığı gerilim filmi Tehlikeli Bakıcı oldu. Film, eleştirmenlerden karışık yorumlar aldı ve Crowther onu zor bir rol için çok deneyimsiz saydı. Variety filmin sorunlarının sebebinin senaryosu olmasıyla suçladı.
Monroe's three other films in 1952 continued typecasting her in comic roles that focused on her sex appeal. In We're Not Married!, her starring role as a beauty pageant contestant was created solely to "present Marilyn in two bathing suits", according to its writer Nunnally Johnson. In Howard Hawks' Monkey Business, in which she was featured opposite Cary Grant, she played a secretary who is a "dumb, childish blonde, innocently unaware of the havoc her sexiness causes around her". In O. Henry's Full House, her final film of the year, she had a minor role as a prostitute.
During this period, Monroe gained a reputation for being difficult on film sets, which worsened as her career progressed. Sıklıkla geç kalıyor ya da ortaya çıkmıyor, repliklerini hatırlamıyor ve oyunculuğundan memnun olmadan önce bir kaç kez tekrar talep ediyordu. Monroe'nun oyuncu koçlarına olan bağımlılığı -önce Natasha Lytess ve sonra Paula Strasberg- yönetmenleri tedirgin ediyordu. Monroe'nun sorunu mükemmelliyetçiliğin birleşimi, düşük öz saygı ve sahne korkusuna dayandırıldı; film setleri üzerinde yaptığı çalışmadaki kontrol eksikliğini sevmiyordu ve performansı üzerinden daha fazla şey söylediği ve senaryoyu takip etmek yerine daha fazla doğal olabildiği fotoğraf çekimleri sırasında asla benzer sorunlar yaşamıyordu. Endişe ve kronik uykusuzluğunu hafifletmek için uyku hapları, amfetamin ve alkol kullanmaya başladı ancak 1956 yılına kadar ciddi bir şekilde bağımlı olmamasına rağmen sorunlarını kötüleştirdi. According to Sarah Churchwell, some of Monroe's behavior especially later in her career was also in response to the condescension and sexism of her male co-stars and directors. Similarly, Lois Banner has stated that she was bullied by many of her directors.
Yükselen yıldız (1953)[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Monroe starred in three movies released in 1953, emerging as a major sex symbol and one of Hollywood's most bankable performers. The first of these was the Technicolor film noir Niagara, in which she played a femme fatale scheming to murder her husband, played by Joseph Cotten. By then, Monroe and her make-up artist Allan "Whitey" Snyder had developed the make-up look that became associated with her: dark arched brows, pale skin, "glistening" red lips and a beauty mark. According to Sarah Churchwell, Niagara was one of the most overtly sexual films of Monroe's career, and it included scenes in which her body was covered only by a sheet or a towel, considered shocking by contemporary audiences. Its most famous scene is a 30-second long shot of Monroe shown walking from behind with her hips swaying, which was heavily used in the film's marketing.
Upon Niagara's release in January, women's clubs protested against it as immoral, but it proved popular with audiences, grossing $6 million in the box office. While Variety deemed it "clichéd" and "morbid", The New York Times commented that "the falls and Miss Monroe are something to see", as although Monroe may not be "the perfect actress at this point ... she can be seductive – even when she walks". Monroe continued to attract attention with her revealing outfits in publicity events, most famously at the Photoplay awards in January 1953, where she won the "Fastest Rising Star" award. She wore a skin-tight gold lamé dress, which prompted veteran star Joan Crawford to describe her behavior as "unbecoming an actress and a lady" to the press.
While Niagara made Monroe a sex symbol and established her "look", her second film of the year, the satirical musical comedy Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, established her screen persona as a "dumb blonde". Based on Anita Loos' bestselling novel and its Broadway version, the film focuses on two "gold-digging" showgirls, Lorelei Lee and Dorothy Shaw, played by Monroe and Jane Russell. The role of Lorelei was originally intended for Betty Grable, who had been 20th Century-Fox's most popular "blonde bombshell" in the 1940s; Monroe was fast eclipsing her as a star who could appeal to both male and female audiences. As part of the film's publicity campaign, she and Russell pressed their hand and footprints in wet concrete outside Grauman's Chinese Theatre in June. Gentlemen Prefer Blondes was released shortly after and became one of the biggest box office successes of the year by grossing $5.3 million, more than double its production costs. Crowther of The New York Times and William Brogdon of Variety both commented favorably on Monroe, especially noting her performance of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend"; according to the latter, she demonstrated the "ability to sex a song as well as point up the eye values of a scene by her presence".
In September, Monroe made her television debut in the Jack Benny Show, playing Jack's fantasy woman in the episode "Honolulu Trip". She co-starred with Betty Grable and Lauren Bacall in her third movie of the year, How to Marry a Millionaire, which was released in November. It featured Monroe in the role of a naïve model who teams up with her friends to find rich husbands, repeating the successful formula of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. It was the second film ever released in CinemaScope, a widescreen format that Fox hoped would draw audiences back to theaters as television was beginning to cause losses to film studios. Despite mixed reviews, the film was Monroe's biggest box office success at that point in her career, earning $8 million in world rentals.
Monroe was listed in the annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll in both 1953 and 1954, and according to Fox historian Aubrey Solomon became the studio's "greatest asset" alongside CinemaScope. Monroe's position as a leading sex symbol was confirmed in December, when Hugh Hefner featured her on the cover and as centerfold in the first issue of Playboy. The cover image was a shot of her taken at the Miss America Pageant parade in 1952, and the centerfold featured one of her 1949 nude photographs.
Conflicts with 20th Century-Fox and marriage to Joe DiMaggio (1954–1955)[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Although Monroe had become one of 20th Century-Fox's biggest stars, her contract had not changed since 1950, meaning that she was paid far less than other stars of her stature and could not choose her projects or co-workers. She was also tired of being typecast, and her attempts to appear in films other than comedies or musicals had been thwarted by Zanuck, who had a strong personal dislike of her and did not think she would earn the studio as much revenue in dramas. When she refused to begin shooting yet another musical comedy, a film version of The Girl in Pink Tights, which was to co-star Frank Sinatra, the studio suspended her on January 4, 1954.
The suspension was front page news and Monroe immediately began a publicity campaign to counter any negative press and to strengthen her position in the conflict. On January 14, she and Joe DiMaggio, whose relationship had been subject to constant media attention since 1952, were married at San Francisco City Hall. They then traveled to Japan, combining a honeymoon with his business trip. From there, she traveled alone to Korea, where she performed songs from her films as part of a USO show for over 60,000 U.S. Marines over a four-day period. After returning to Hollywood in February, she was awarded Photoplay's "Most Popular Female Star" prize. She reached a settlement with the studio in March: it included a new contract to be made later in the year, and a starring role in the film version of the Broadway play The Seven Year Itch, for which she was to receive a bonus of $100,000.
Monroe's next film to be released was Otto Preminger's Western River of No Return, which had been filmed prior to her suspension and featured Robert Mitchum as her co-star. She called it a "Z-grade cowboy movie in which the acting finished second to the scenery and the CinemaScope process", although it was popular with audiences. The first film she made after returning to Fox was the musical There's No Business Like Show Business, which she strongly disliked but the studio required her to do in exchange for dropping The Girl in Pink Tights. The musical was unsuccessful upon its release in December, and Monroe's performance was considered vulgar by many critics.
In September 1954, Monroe began filming Billy Wilder's comedy The Seven Year Itch, in which she starred opposite Tom Ewell as a woman who becomes the object of her married neighbor's sexual fantasies. Although the film was shot in Hollywood, the studio decided to generate advance publicity by staging the filming of a scene on Lexington Avenue in New York. In the shoot, Monroe is standing on a subway grate with the air blowing up the skirt of her white dress, which became one of the most famous scenes of her career. The shoot lasted for several hours and attracted a crowd of nearly 2,000 spectators, including professional photographers.
While the publicity stunt placed Monroe on international front pages, it also marked the end of her marriage to DiMaggio, who was furious about the stunt. The union had been troubled from the start by his jealousy and controlling attitude; Spoto and Banner have also asserted that he was physically abusive. After returning to Hollywood, Monroe hired famous attorney Jerry Giesler and announced in October 1954 that she was filing for divorce. The Seven Year Itch was released the following June, and grossed over $4.5 million at the box office, making it one of the biggest commercial successes that year.
After filming for Itch wrapped in November, Monroe began a new battle for control over her career and left Hollywood for the East Coast, where she and photographer Milton Greene founded their own production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions (MMP) – an action that has later been called "instrumental" in the collapse of the studio system.[a] Announcing its foundation in a press conference in January 1955, Monroe stated that she was "tired of the same old sex roles. I want to do better things. People have scope, you know." She asserted that she was no longer under contract to Fox, as the studio had not fulfilled its duties, such as paying her the promised bonus for The Seven Year Itch. This began a year-long legal battle between her and the studio. The press largely ridiculed Monroe for her actions and she was parodied in Itch writer George Axelrod's Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? (1955), in which her lookalike Jayne Mansfield played a dumb actress who starts her own production company.
Monroe dedicated 1955 to studying her craft. She moved to New York and began taking acting classes with Constance Collier and attending workshops on method acting at the Actors Studio, run by Lee Strasberg. She sometimes jotted down private notes to herself of what she learned on a given day, acknowledging that Strasberg's observations about her in particular were important:
|« Why did it mean so much to me?... Strasberg makes me feel badly [that I was acting out of "fear"]... You must start to do things out of strength... by not looking for strength, but only looking and seeking technical ways and means. »|
She grew close to Strasberg and his wife Paula, receiving private lessons at their home due to her shyness, and soon became like a family member. She dismissed her old drama coach, Natasha Lytess, and replaced her with Paula; the Strasbergs remained an important influence for the rest of her career. Monroe also started undergoing psychoanalysis at the recommendation of Strasberg, who believed that an actor must confront their emotional traumas and use them in their performances.[b]
In her private life, Monroe continued her relationship with DiMaggio despite the ongoing divorce proceedings; she also dated actor Marlon Brando and playwright Arthur Miller. She had first been introduced to Miller by Kazan in the early 1950s. The affair between Monroe and Miller became increasingly serious after October 1955, when her divorce from DiMaggio was finalized, and Miller separated from his wife. The FBI also opened a file on her. The studio feared that Monroe would be blacklisted and urged her to end the affair, as Miller was being investigated by the FBI for allegations of communism and had been subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee. Despite the risk to her career, Monroe refused to end the relationship, later calling the studio heads "born cowards".
By the end of the year, Monroe and Fox had come to an agreement about a new seven-year contract. It was clear that MMP would not be able to finance films alone, and the studio was eager to have Monroe working again. The contract required her to make four movies for Fox during the seven years. The studio would pay her $100,000 for each movie, and granted her the right to choose her own projects, directors and cinematographers. She would also be free to make one film with MMP per each completed film for Fox.
Critical acclaim and marriage to Arthur Miller (1956–1959)[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Monroe began 1956 by announcing her win over 20th Century-Fox; the press, which had previously derided her, now wrote favorably about her decision to fight the studio. Time called her a "shrewd businesswoman" and Look predicted that the win would be "an example of the individual against the herd for years to come". She also officially changed her name to Marilyn Monroe in March. Her relationship with Miller prompted some negative comments from the press, including Walter Winchell's statement that "America's best-known blonde moving picture star is now the darling of the left-wing intelligentsia." Monroe and Miller were married in a civil ceremony at the Westchester County Court in White Plains, New York on June 29, and two days later had a Jewish ceremony at his agent's house at Waccabuc, New York. Monroe converted to Judaism with the marriage, which led Egypt to ban all of her films.[c] The media saw the union as mismatched given her star image as a sex symbol and his position as an intellectual, as demonstrated by Variety's headline "Egghead Weds Hourglass".
The first film that Monroe chose to make under the new contract was the drama Bus Stop, released in August 1956. She played Chérie, a saloon singer whose dreams of stardom are complicated by a naïve cowboy who falls in love with her. For the role, she learnt an Ozark accent, chose costumes and make-up that lacked the glamour of her earlier films, and provided deliberately mediocre singing and dancing. Broadway director Joshua Logan agreed to direct, despite initially doubting her acting abilities and knowing of her reputation for being difficult. The filming took place in Idaho and Arizona in early 1956, with Monroe "technically in charge" as the head of MMP, occasionally making decisions on cinematography and with Logan adapting to her chronic lateness and perfectionism.
The experience changed Logan's opinion of Monroe, and he later compared her to Charlie Chaplin in her ability to blend comedy and tragedy. Bus Stop became a box office success, grossing $4.25 million, and received mainly favorable reviews. The Saturday Review of Literature wrote that Monroe's performance "effectively dispels once and for all the notion that she is merely a glamour personality" and Crowther proclaimed: "Hold on to your chairs, everybody, and get set for a rattling surprise. Marilyn Monroe has finally proved herself an actress." She received a Golden Globe for Best Actress nomination for her performance.
In August 1956, Monroe began filming MMP's first independent production, The Prince and the Showgirl, at Pinewood Studios in England. It was based on Terence Rattigan's The Sleeping Prince, a play about an affair between a showgirl and a prince in the 1910s. The main roles had first been played on stage by Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh; he reprised his role and directed and co-produced the film. The production was complicated by conflicts between him and Monroe. He angered her with the patronizing statement "All you have to do is be sexy", and by wanting her to replicate Leigh's interpretation. He also disliked the constant presence of Paula Strasberg, Monroe's acting coach, on set.
In retaliation to what she considered Olivier's "condescending" behavior, Monroe started arriving late and became uncooperative, stating later that "if you don't respect your artists, they can't work well." Her drug use escalated, and according to Spoto she became pregnant and miscarried during the production. She also had arguments with Greene over how MMP should be run, including whether Miller should join the company. Despite the difficulties, the film was completed on schedule by the end of the year. It was released in June 1957 to mixed reviews, and proved unpopular with American audiences. It was better received in Europe, where she was awarded the Italian David di Donatello and the French Crystal Star awards, and was nominated for a BAFTA.
After returning to the United States, Monroe took an 18-month hiatus from work to concentrate on married life on the East Coast. She and Miller split their time between their apartment in Manhattan and an eighteenth-century farmhouse that they purchased in Roxbury, Connecticut; they spent the summer in Amagansett, Long Island. She became pregnant in mid-1957, but it was ectopic and had to be terminated. She suffered a miscarriage a year later. Her gynecological problems were largely caused by endometriosis, a disease from which she suffered throughout her adult life.[d] Monroe was also briefly hospitalized during this time due to a barbiturate overdose. During the hiatus, she dismissed Greene from MMP and bought his share of the company as they could not settle their disagreements and she had begun to suspect that he was embezzling money from the company.
Monroe returned to Hollywood in July 1958 to act opposite Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis in Billy Wilder's comedy on gender roles, Some Like It Hot. Although she considered the role of Sugar Kane another "dumb blonde", she accepted it due to Miller's encouragement and the offer of receiving ten percent of the film's profits in addition to her standard pay. The difficulties of the film's production have since become "legendary". Monroe would demand dozens of re-takes, and could not remember her lines or act as directed – Curtis famously stated that kissing her was "like kissing Hitler" due to the number of re-takes. Monroe herself privately likened the production to a sinking ship and commented on her co-stars and director saying "[but] why should I worry, I have no phallic symbol to lose." Many of the problems stemmed from a conflict between her and Wilder, who also had a reputation for being difficult, on how she should play the character. Monroe made Wilder angry by asking him to alter many of her scenes, which in turn made her stage fright worse, and it is suggested that she deliberately ruined several scenes to act them her way.
In the end, Wilder was happy with Monroe's performance, stating: "Anyone can remember lines, but it takes a real artist to come on the set and not know her lines and yet give the performance she did!" Despite the difficulties of its production, when Some Like It Hot was released in March 1959, it became a critical and commercial success. Monroe's performance earned her a Golden Globe for Best Actress, and prompted Variety to call her "a comedienne with that combination of sex appeal and timing that just can't be beat". It has been voted one of the best films ever made in polls by the American Film Institute and Sight & Sound.
Career decline and personal difficulties (1960–1962)[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
After Some Like It Hot, Monroe took another hiatus until late 1959, when she returned to Hollywood to star in the musical comedy Let's Make Love, about an actress and a millionaire who fall in love when performing in a satirical play. She chose George Cukor to direct and Miller re-wrote portions of the script, which she considered weak; she accepted the part solely because she was behind on her contract with Fox, having only made one of four promised films. Its production was delayed by her frequent absences from set. She had an affair with Yves Montand, her co-star, which was widely reported by the press and used in the film's publicity campaign. Let's Make Love was unsuccessful upon its release in September 1960; Crowther described Monroe as appearing "rather untidy" and "lacking ... the old Monroe dynamism", and Hedda Hopper called the film "the most vulgar picture she's ever done". Truman Capote lobbied for her to play Holly Golightly in a film adaptation of Breakfast at Tiffany's, but the role went to Audrey Hepburn as its producers feared that Monroe would complicate the production.
The last film that Monroe completed was John Huston's The Misfits, which Miller had written to provide her with a dramatic role. She played Roslyn, a recently divorced woman who becomes friends with three aging cowboys, played by Clark Gable, Eli Wallach and Montgomery Clift. Its filming in the Nevada desert between July and November 1960 was again difficult. Monroe and Miller's four-year marriage was effectively over, and he began a new relationship. Monroe disliked that he had based her role partly on her life, and thought it inferior to the male roles; she also struggled with Miller's habit of re-writing scenes the night before filming. Her health was also failing: she was in pain from gallstones, and her drug addiction was so severe that her make-up usually had to be applied while she was still asleep under the influence of barbiturates. In August, filming was halted for her to spend a week detoxing in a Los Angeles hospital. Despite her problems, Huston stated that when Monroe was playing Roslyn, she "was not pretending to an emotion. It was the real thing. She would go deep down within herself and find it and bring it up into consciousness."
Monroe and Miller separated after filming wrapped up, and she was granted a quick divorce in Mexico in January 1961. The Misfits was released the following month, failing at the box office. Its reviews were mixed, with Variety complaining of frequently "choppy" character development, and Bosley Crowther calling Monroe "completely blank and unfathomable" and stating that "unfortunately for the film's structure, everything turns upon her". Despite the film's initial failure, it has received more favorable reviews from critics and film scholars in the twenty-first century. Geoff Andrew of the British Film Institute has called it a classic, Huston scholar Tony Tracy has described Monroe's performance the "most mature interpretation of her career", and Geoffrey McNab of The Independent has praised her for being "extraordinary" in portraying Roslyn's "power of empathy".
Monroe was next to star in a television adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham's short story Rain for NBC, but the project fell through as the network did not want to hire her choice of director, Lee Strasberg. Instead of working, she spent the first six months of 1961 preoccupied by health problems, undergoing surgery for her endometriosis and a cholecystectomy, and spending four weeks in hospital care – including a brief stint in a mental ward – for depression.[e] She was helped by her ex-husband Joe DiMaggio, with whom she now rekindled a friendship. In spring 1961, Monroe also moved back to California after six years on the East Coast. She dated Frank Sinatra for several months, and in early 1962 purchased a house in Brentwood, Los Angeles.
Monroe returned to the public eye in spring 1962: she received a "World Film Favorite" Golden Globe award and began to shoot a new film for 20th Century-Fox, Something's Got to Give, a re-make of My Favorite Wife (1940). It was to be co-produced by MMP, directed by George Cukor and to co-star Dean Martin and Cyd Charisse. Days before filming began, Monroe caught sinusitis; despite medical advice to postpone the production, Fox began it as planned in late April. Monroe was too ill to work for the majority of the next six weeks, but despite confirmations by multiple doctors, the studio tried to put pressure on her by alleging publicly that she was faking it. On May 19, she took a break to sing "Happy Birthday" on stage at President John F. Kennedy's birthday celebration at Madison Square Garden in New York. She drew attention with her costume: a beige, skintight dress covered in rhinestones, which made her appear nude.[f] Monroe's trip to New York caused even more irritation for Fox executives, who had wanted her to cancel it.
Monroe next filmed a scene for Something's Got to Give in which she swam naked in a swimming pool. To generate advance publicity, the press was invited to take photographs of the scene, which were later published in Life; this was the first time that a major star had posed nude while at the height of their career. When she was again on sick leave for several days, Fox decided that it could not afford to have another film running behind schedule when it was already struggling to cover the rising costs of Cleopatra (1963). On June 7, Monroe was fired and sued for $750,000 in damages. She was replaced by Lee Remick, but after Martin refused to make the film with anyone other than Monroe, Fox sued him as well and shut down the production. The studio blamed Monroe for the film's demise and began spreading negative publicity about her, even alleging that she was mentally disturbed.
Fox soon regretted its decision, and re-opened negotiations with Monroe later in June; a settlement about a new contract, including re-commencing Something's Got to Give and a starring role in the black comedy What a Way to Go! (1964), was reached later that summer. To repair her public image, Monroe engaged in several publicity ventures, including interviews for Life and Cosmopolitan and her first photo shoot for Vogue. For Vogue, she and photographer Bert Stern collaborated for two series of photographs, one a standard fashion editorial and another of her posing nude, which were both later published posthumously with the title The Last Sitting. In the last weeks of her life, she was also planning on starring in a biopic of Jean Harlow.
Death[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Monroe was found dead in the bedroom of her Brentwood home by her psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson, in the early morning hours of August 5, 1962. Greenson had been called there by her housekeeper Eunice Murray, who was staying overnight and had awoken at 3:00 a.m. "sensing that something was wrong". Murray had seen light from under Monroe's bedroom door, but had not been able to get a response and found the door locked. The death was officially confirmed by Monroe's physician, Dr. Hyman Engelberg, who arrived at the house at around 3:50 a.m. At 4:25 a.m., they notified the Los Angeles Police Department.
The Los Angeles County Coroners Office was assisted in their investigation by experts from the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Team. It was estimated that Monroe had died between 8:30 and 10:30 p.m., and the toxicology report later revealed that the cause of death was acute barbiturate poisoning. She had 8 mg% (milligrams per 100 milliliters of solution) chloral hydrate and 4.5 mg% of pentobarbital (Nembutal) in her blood, and a further 13 mg% of pentobarbital in her liver. Empty bottles containing these medicines were found next to her bed. The possibility of Monroe having accidentally overdosed was ruled out as the dosages found in her body were several times over the lethal limit. Her doctors stated that she had been prone to "severe fears and frequent depressions" with "abrupt and unpredictable" mood changes, and had overdosed several times in the past, possibly intentionally. Due to these facts and the lack of any indication of foul play, her death was classified a probable suicide.
Monroe's unexpected death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. According to Lois Banner, "it's said that the suicide rate in Los Angeles doubled the month after she died; the circulation rate of most newspapers expanded that month", and the Chicago Tribune reported that they had received hundreds of phone calls from members of the public requesting information about her death. French artist Jean Cocteau commented that her death "should serve as a terrible lesson to all those, whose chief occupation consists of spying on and tormenting film stars", her former co-star Laurence Olivier deemed her "the complete victim of ballyhoo and sensation", and Bus Stop director Joshua Logan stated that she was "one of the most unappreciated people in the world". Her funeral, held at the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery on August 8, was private and attended by only her closest associates. The service was arranged by Joe DiMaggio and her business manager Inez Melson. Hundreds of spectators crowded the streets around the cemetery. Monroe was later interred at crypt No. 24 at the Corridor of Memories.
Several conspiracy theories about Monroe's death have been introduced in the decades afterwards, including murder and accidental overdose. The murder speculations first gained mainstream attention with the publication of Norman Mailer's Marilyn: A Biography in 1973, and in the following years became widespread enough for the Los Angeles County District Attorney John Van de Kamp to conduct a "threshold investigation" in 1982 to see whether a criminal investigation should be opened. No evidence of foul play was found.
Screen persona and reception[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
When beginning to develop her star image, 20th Century-Fox wanted Monroe to replace the aging Betty Grable, their most popular "blonde bombshell" of the 1940s. While the 1940s had been the heyday of actresses perceived as tough and smart, such as Katharine Hepburn and Barbara Stanwyck, who appealed to women-dominated audiences, the studio wanted Monroe to be a star of the new decade that would draw men to movie theaters. She played a significant part in the creation of her public image from the beginning, and towards the end of her career exerted almost full control over it. Monroe devised many of her publicity strategies, cultivated friendships with gossip columnists such as Sidney Skolsky and Louella Parsons, and controlled the use of her images. Besides Grable, she was often compared to another iconic blonde, 1930s film star Jean Harlow. The comparison was partly prompted by Monroe, who named Harlow as her childhood idol, wanted to play her in a biopic, and even employed Harlow's hair stylist to color her hair.
Monroe's screen persona centered on her blonde hair, and the stereotypes associated with it, especially dumbness, naïveté, sexual availability and artificiality. She often used a breathy, childish voice in her films, and in interviews gave the impression that everything she said was "utterly innocent and uncalculated", parodying herself with double entendres that came to be known as "Monroeisms". For example, when she was asked what she had on in the 1949 nude photo shoot, she replied, "I had the radio on". Having begun her career as a pin-up model, Monroe's hourglass figure was one of her most often noted features. Film scholar Richard Dyer has written that Monroe was often positioned so that her curvy silhouette was on display, and in her publicity photos often posed like a pin-up. Her distinctive, hip-swinging walk also drew attention to her body, earning her the nickname "the girl with the horizontal walk".
Clothing played an important part in Monroe's star image. She often wore white to emphasize her blondness, and drew attention by wearing revealing outfits that showed off her figure. Her publicity stunts often revolved around her clothing exposing large amounts of her body or even malfunctioning, such as when one of the shoulder straps of her dress suddenly snapped during a press conference. In press stories, Monroe was portrayed as the embodiment of the American Dream, as a girl who had risen from a miserable childhood to Hollywood stardom. Stories of her time spent in foster families and an orphanage were exaggerated and even partly fabricated in her studio biographies.
Although Monroe's screen persona as a dim-witted but sexually attractive blonde was a carefully crafted act, audiences and film critics believed it to be her real personality and that she was not acting in her comedies. This became an obstacle in her later career, when she wanted to change her public image and pursue other kinds of roles, or to be respected as a businesswoman. Academic Sarah Churchwell, who has studied narratives about Monroe, has stated:
|« The biggest myth is that she was dumb. The second is that she was fragile. The third is that she couldn't act. She was far from dumb, although she was not formally educated, and she was very sensitive about that. But she was very smart indeed – and very tough. She had to be both to beat the Hollywood studio system in the 1950s. [...] The dumb blonde was a role – she was an actress, for heaven's sake! Such a good actress that no one now believes she was anything but what she portrayed on screen. »|
Lois Banner has written that she often subtly parodied her status as a sex symbol in her films and public appearances. Monroe stated that she was influenced by Mae West, saying that she "learned a few tricks from her – that impression of laughing at, or mocking, her own sexuality". In the 1950s, she also studied comedy in classes given by mime and dancer Lotte Goslar, famous for her comic stage performances, and had her accompany her on film sets to instruct her. In Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, one of the films in which she played an archetypal dumb blonde, Monroe had the sentence "I can be smart when it's important, but most men don't like it" added to her character's lines in the script.
Dyer has stated Monroe's star image was created mainly for the male gaze and that she usually played "the girl", who is defined solely by her gender, in her films. Her roles were almost always chorus girls, secretaries, or models; occupations where "the woman is on show, there for the pleasure of men." Film scholar Thomas Harris, who analyzed Monroe's public image in 1957, wrote that her working class roots and lack of family made her appear more sexually available, "the ideal playmate", in contrast to her contemporary Grace Kelly, who was also marketed as an attractive blonde, but due to her upper-class background came to be seen as a sophisticated actress, unattainable for the majority of male viewers.
According to Dyer, Monroe became "virtually a household name for sex" in the 1950s and "her image has to be situated in the flux of ideas about morality and sexuality that characterised the fifties in America", such as Freudian ideas about sex, the Kinsey report (1953), and Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963). By appearing vulnerable and unaware of her sex appeal, Monroe was the first sex symbol to present sex as natural and without danger, in contrast to the 1940s femme fatales. Spoto likewise describes her as the embodiment of "the postwar ideal of the American girl, soft, transparently needy, worshipful of men, naïve, offering sex without demands", which is echoed in Molly Haskell's statement that "she was the fifties fiction, the lie that a woman had no sexual needs, that she is there to cater to, or enhance, a man's needs." Monroe's contemporary Norman Mailer wrote that "Marilyn suggested sex might be difficult and dangerous with others, but ice cream with her", while Groucho Marx characterized her as "Mae West, Theda Bara, and Bo Peep all rolled into one". According to Haskell, due to her status as a sex symbol, Monroe was less popular with women than with men, as they "couldn't identify with her and didn't support her", although this would change after her death.
Dyer has also argued that platinum blonde hair became such a defining feature of Monroe because it made her "racially unambiguous" and exclusively white just as the Civil Rights Movement was beginning, and that she should be seen as emblematic of racism in twentieth-century popular culture. Banner agrees that it may not be a coincidence that Monroe launched a trend of platinum blonde actresses during the Civil Rights Movement, but has also criticized Dyer, pointing out that in her highly publicized private life Monroe associated with people who were seen as "white ethnics", such as Joe DiMaggio (Italian-American) and Arthur Miller (Jewish). According to Banner, she sometimes challenged prevailing racial norms in her publicity photographs; for example, in an image featured in Look in 1951, she was shown in revealing clothes while practicing with African-American singing coach Phil Moore.
Monroe was perceived as a specifically American star, "a national institution as well known as hot dogs, apple pie, or baseball" according to Photoplay. Banner calls her the symbol of populuxe, a star whose joyful and glamorous public image "helped the nation cope with its paranoia in the 1950s about the Cold War, the atom bomb, and the totalitarian communist Soviet Union". Historian Fiona Handyside writes that the French female audiences associated whiteness/blondness with American modernity and cleanliness, and so Monroe came to symbolize a modern, "liberated" woman whose life takes place in the public sphere. Film historian Laura Mulvey has written of her as an endorsement for American consumer culture:
|« If America was to export the democracy of glamour into post-war, impoverished Europe, the movies could be its shop window ... Marilyn Monroe, with her all American attributes and streamlined sexuality, came to epitomise in a single image this complex interface of the economic, the political, and the erotic. By the mid 1950s, she stood for a brand of classless glamour, available to anyone using American cosmetics, nylons and peroxide. »|
To profit from Monroe's popularity, 20th Century-Fox cultivated several lookalike actresses, including Jayne Mansfield and Sheree North. Other studios also attempted to create their own Monroes: Universal Pictures with Mamie Van Doren, Columbia Pictures with Kim Novak, and Rank Organisation with Diana Dors.
Legacy[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
According to The Guide to United States Popular Culture, "as an icon of American popular culture, Monroe's few rivals in popularity include Elvis Presley and Mickey Mouse ... no other star has ever inspired such a wide range of emotions – from lust to pity, from envy to remorse." Art historian Gail Levin has stated that Monroe may have been "the most photographed person of the 20th century", and The American Film Institute has named her the sixth greatest female screen legend in American film history. The Smithsonian Institution has included her on their list of "100 Most Significant Americans of All Time", and both Variety and VH1 have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century. Hundreds of books have been written about Monroe, she has been the subject of films, plays, operas, and songs, and has influenced artists and entertainers such as Andy Warhol and Madonna. She also remains a valuable brand: her image and name have been licensed for hundreds of products, and she has been featured in advertising for multinational corporations and brands such as Max Factor, Chanel, Mercedes-Benz, and Absolut Vodka.
Monroe's enduring popularity is linked to her conflicted public image. On the one hand, she remains a sex symbol, beauty icon and one of the most famous stars of classical Hollywood cinema. On the other, she is also remembered for her troubled private life, unstable childhood, struggle for professional respect, and her death and the conspiracy theories surrounding it. She has been written about by scholars and journalists interested in gender and feminism, such as Gloria Steinem, Jacqueline Rose, Molly Haskell, Sarah Churchwell, and Lois Banner. Some, such as Steinem, have viewed her as a victim of the studio system. Others, such as Haskell, Rose, and Churchwell, have instead stressed Monroe's proactive role in her career and her participation in the creation of her public persona.
Due to the contrast between her stardom and troubled private life, Monroe is closely linked to broader discussions about modern phenomena such as mass media, fame, and consumer culture. According to academic Susanne Hamscha, because of her continued relevance to ongoing discussions about modern society, Monroe is "never completely situated in one time or place" but has become "a surface on which narratives of American culture can be (re-)constructed", and "functions as a cultural type that can be reproduced, transformed, translated into new contexts, and enacted by other people". Similarly, Banner has called Monroe the "eternal shapeshifter" who is re-created by "each generation, even each individual ... to their own specifications".
While Monroe remains a cultural icon, critics are divided on her legacy as an actress. David Thomson called her body of work "insubstantial" and Pauline Kael wrote that she could not act, but rather "used her lack of an actress's skills to amuse the public. She had the wit or crassness or desperation to turn cheesecake into acting – and vice versa; she did what others had the 'good taste' not to do". In contrast, according to Peter Bradshaw, Monroe was a talented comedian who "understood how comedy achieved its effects", and Roger Ebert wrote that "Monroe's eccentricities and neuroses on sets became notorious, but studios put up with her long after any other actress would have been blackballed because what they got back on the screen was magical". Similarly, Jonathan Rosenbaum stated that "she subtly subverted the sexist content of her material" and that "the difficulty some people have discerning Monroe's intelligence as an actress seems rooted in the ideology of a repressive era, when superfeminine women weren't supposed to be smart".
Filmography[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- Dangerous Years (1947)
- Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! (1948)
- Ladies of the Chorus (1948)
- Love Happy (1949)
- A Ticket to Tomahawk (1950)
- The Asphalt Jungle (1950)
- All About Eve (1950)
- The Fireball (1950)
- Right Cross (1951)
- Home Town Story (1951)
- As Young as You Feel (1951)
- Love Nest (1951)
- Let's Make It Legal (1951)
- Clash by Night (1952)
- We're Not Married! (1952)
- Don't Bother to Knock (1952)
- Monkey Business (1952)
- O. Henry's Full House (1952)
- Niagara (1953)
- Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953)
- How to Marry a Millionaire (1953)
- River of No Return (1954)
- There's No Business Like Show Business (1954)
- The Seven Year Itch (1955)
- Bus Stop (1956)
- The Prince and the Showgirl (1957)
- Some Like It Hot (1959)
- Let's Make Love (1960)
- The Misfits (1961)
- Something's Got to Give (1962)
Notes[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- ^ Monroe and Greene had first met and had a brief affair in 1949, and met again in 1953, when he photographed her for Look. She told him about her grievances with the studio, and Greene suggested that they start their own production company.
- ^ Monroe underwent psychoanalysis regularly from 1955 until her death in 1962. Her analysts were psychiatrists Margaret Hohenberg (1955–57), Anna Freud (1957), Marianne Kris (1957–61), and Ralph Greenson (1960–62).
- ^ Monroe identified with the Jewish people as a "dispossessed group" and wanted to convert to make herself part of Miller's family. She was instructed by Rabbi Robert Goldberg and converted on July 1, 1956. Monroe's interest in Judaism as a religion was limited: she referred to herself as a "Jewish atheist" and after her divorce from Miller, did not practice the faith aside from retaining some religious items. Egypt also lifted her ban after the divorce was finalized in 1961.
- ^ It also caused her to experience severe menstrual pain throughout her life, necessitating a clause in her contract allowing her to be absent from work during her period, and required several surgeries. It has sometimes been alleged that Monroe underwent several abortions, and that unsafe abortions made by persons without proper medical training would have contributed to her inability to maintain a pregnancy. The abortion rumors began from statements made by Amy Greene, the wife of Milton Greene, but have not been confirmed by any concrete evidence. Furthermore, Monroe's autopsy report did not note any evidence of abortions.
- ^ Monroe first admitted herself to the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic in New York, at the suggestion of her psychiatrist Marianne Kris. Kris later stated that her choice of hospital was a mistake: Monroe was placed on a ward meant for severely mentally ill people with psychosis, where she was locked in a padded cell and was not allowed to move to a more suitable ward or to leave the hospital. Monroe was finally able to leave the hospital after three days with the help of Joe DiMaggio, and moved to the Columbia University Medical Center, spending a further 23 days there.
- ^ Monroe and Kennedy had mutual friends and were familiar with each other. Although they sometimes had casual sexual encounters, there is no evidence that their relationship was serious.
References[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 59–60.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, ss. 159–162.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 168–170.
- ^ Riese & Hitchens 1988, p. 228; Spoto 2001, p. 182.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 175–177; Banner 2012, p. 157.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 183, 191.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 60.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 179–187; Churchwell 2004, p. 60.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 188–189; Banner 2012, pp. 170–171.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 192.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 180–181; Banner 2012, pp. 163–167, 181–182 (Kazan ve diğerleri için).
- ^ Muir, Florabel (19 Ekim 1952). "Marilyn Monroe Tells: How to Deal With Wolves". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: 18 Ekim 2015.
- ^ Hopper, Hedda (4 Mayıs 1952). "They Call Her The Blowtorch Blonde". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: 18 Ekim 2015.
- ^ a b Kahana, Yoram (30 Ocak 2014). "Marilyn: The Globes' Golden Girl". Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA). Erişim tarihi: 11 Eylül 2015.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 201; Banner 2012, p. 192.
- ^ Summers 1985, p. 58; Spoto 2001, pp. 210–213.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 210–213; Churchwell 2004, pp. 224–226; Banner 2012, pp. 194–195.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 210–213; Churchwell 2004, pp. 61–62, 224–226; Banner 2012, pp. 194–195.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 224–225.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, p. 61 for being commercially successful; Banner 2012, p. 178 for wishes to not be solely a sex symbol.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 194–195; Churchwell 2004, pp. 60–61.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 194–195.
- ^ "Clash By Night". American Film Institute. Erişim tarihi: 8 Ağustos 2015.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 196–197.
- ^ Crowther, Bosley (19 Temmuz 1952). "Don't Bother to Knock". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: 8 Ağustos 2015.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, p. 61; Banner 2012, p. 180.
- ^ "Review: Don't Bother to Knock". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. 31 Aralık 1951. Erişim tarihi: 8 Ağustos 2015.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 200.
- ^ a b c Churchwell 2004, s. 62.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 238.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 139, 195, 233–234, 241, 244, 372.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 328–329; Churchwell 2004, pp. 51–56; 238; Banner 2012, pp. , 188–189; 211–214.
- ^ "Filmmaker Interview — Gail Levin". PBS. July 19, 2006. Erişim tarihi: June 28, 2016.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 328–329; Churchwell 2004, p. 238; Banner 2012, pp. 211–214, 311.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 257–264.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 189–190, 210-211.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 221; Churchwell 2004, pp. 61–65; Lev 2013, p. 168.
- ^ a b "The 2006 Motion Picture Almanac, Top Ten Money Making Stars". Quigley Publishing Company. December 21, 2014 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: August 25, 2008.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 233.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 25, 62.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, p. 62; Banner 2012, pp. 195–196.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 221; Banner 2012, p. 205; Leaming 1998, p. 75 on box office figure.
- ^ "Niagara Falls Vies With Marilyn Monroe". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. January 22, 1953. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ "Review: 'Niagara'". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. December 31, 1952. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 236–238; Churchwell 2004, p. 234; Banner 2012, pp. 205–206.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 231; Churchwell 2004, p. 64; Banner 2012, p. 200; Leaming 1998, pp. 75–76.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 219–220; Banner 2012, p. 177.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 242; Banner 2012, pp. 208–209.
- ^ Solomon 1988, p. 89; Churchwell 2004, p. 63.
- ^ Brogdon, William (July 1, 1953). "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ Crowther, Bosley (July 16, 1953). "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 250.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 238; Churchwell 2004, pp. 64–65.
- ^ Solomon 1988, p. 89; Churchwell 2004, p. 65; Lev 2013, p. 209.
- ^ Solomon 1988, s. 89.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, s. 217.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 68.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 68, 208–209.
- ^ Summers 1985, p. 92; Spoto 2001, p. 254–259.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 260.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 262–263.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 241.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 267.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, s. 271.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 66–67.
- ^ Riese & Hitchens 1988, pp. 338–440; Spoto 2001, p. 277; Churchwell 2004, p. 66; Banner 2012, p. 227.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, ss. 283–284.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 284–285; Banner 2012, pp. 8–9.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 208, 222–223; 262–267, 292; Churchwell 2004, pp. 243–245; Banner 2012, pp. 204; 219–221.
- ^ Summers 1985, pp. 103–105; Spoto 2001, pp. 290–295; Banner 2012, pp. 224–225.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 331.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 295–298; Churchwell 2004, p. 246.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 158–159, 252–254.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 303.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 302–303.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, ss. 301–302.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 338.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 302.
- ^ Monroe 2010, ss. 78-81.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 327.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 350.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 310–313.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 312–313, 375, 384–385, 421, 459 on years and names.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001; Churchwell 2004, p. 253, for Miller; Banner 2012, p. 285, for Brando.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, p. 337; Meyers 2010, p. 98.
- ^ Summers 1985, p. 157; Spoto 2001, pp. 318–320; Churchwell 2004, pp. 253–254.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 336–345.
- ^ Summers 1985, p. 157; Churchwell 2004, pp. 253–254.
- ^ a b c Spoto 2001, ss. 339–340.
- ^ a b Banner 2012, ss. 296–297.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, s. 341.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 345.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 343–345.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 364–365.
- ^ Schreck, Tom (November 2014). "Marilyn Monroe's Westchester Wedding; Plus, More County Questions And Answers". Westchester Magazine.
- ^ a b c d Meyers 2010, ss. 156–157.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 256.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, pp. 253–257; Meyers 2010, p. 155.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 352–357.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 352–354.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 354–358, for location and time; Banner 2012, p. 297, 310.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 254.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 358–359; Churchwell 2004, p. 69.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 358.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 372.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, ss. 258–261.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 370–379; Churchwell 2004, pp. 258–261; Banner 2012, pp. 310–311.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 370–379.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 368–376; Banner 2012, pp. 310–314.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, p. 69; Banner 2012, p. 314, for being on time.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 69.
- ^ a b Banner 2012, s. 346.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 381–382.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 392–393.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 406–407.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, ss. 274–277.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, pp. 271–274; Banner 2012, pp. 222, 226, 329–30, 335, 362.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, ss. 271–274.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 321.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 389–391.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 325 on it being a comedy on gender.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 325.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 626.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 399–407; Churchwell 2004, p. 262.
- ^ Banner 2012, p. 327 on "sinking ship" and "phallic symbol"; Rose 2014, p. 100 for full quote.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, pp. 262–266; Banner 2012, pp. 325–327.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 406.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 406; Banner 2012, p. 346.
- ^ "Review: 'Some Like It Hot'". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. February 24, 1959. Erişim tarihi: October 21, 2015.
- ^ "Some Like It Hot". American Film Institute. Erişim tarihi: September 5, 2015.
- ^ Christie, Ian (September 2012). "The top 50 Greatest Films of All Time". British Film Institute. Erişim tarihi: September 5, 2015.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, s. 71.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 410–415.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 72.
- ^ Riese & Hitchens 1988, p. 270; Churchwell 2004, p. 266; Solomon 1988, p. 139.
- ^ Crowther, Bosley (September 9, 1960). "Movie Review: Let's Make Love (1960)". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ Hopper, Hedda (August 25, 1960). "Hedda Finds Marilyn's Film 'Most Vulgar'". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 335.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, s. 266.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 429–430.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 431–435; Churchwell 2004, pp. 266–267; Banner 2012, p. 352.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 435–445; Banner 2012, pp. 353–356.
- ^ Tracy 2010, s. 109.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 450–455.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, p. 456; Banner 2012, p. 361.
- ^ "The Misfits". Variety. December 31, 1960. Erişim tarihi: November 16, 2016.
- ^ Crowther, Bosley (February 2, 1961). "Movie Review: The Misfits (1961)". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: October 18, 2015.
- ^ Andrew, Geoff (June 17, 2015). "A Film That Fate Helped Make a Classic: The Misfits". British Film Institute. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ Tracy 2010, s. 96.
- ^ McNab, Geoffrey (June 12, 2015). "The Misfits, film review: Marilyn Monroe gives an extraordinary performance". The Independent. Erişim tarihi: November 16, 2016.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 453–454.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 453, for a new role, 466–467 for operations, 456–464 for psychiatric hospital stays.
- ^ a b c Spoto 2001, ss. 456–459.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 464–465, 483, 594–596; Churchwell 2004, p. 291.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, ss. 465–470, 484–485.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 495–496; Churchwell 2004, pp. 74–75.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 258, for the involvement of MMP.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 524–525; Banner 2012, pp. 391–392; Rollyson 2014, pp. 264–272.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 520–521; Churchwell 2004, pp. 284–285.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, pp. 291–294; Rollyson 2014, p. 17; Spoto 2001, pp. 488–493.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 398.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 523.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 74.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 535.
- ^ a b Churchwell 2004, s. 75.
- ^ Spoto 2001, ss. 535–536.
- ^ Rollyson 2014, p. 273–274; 279; Spoto 2001, pp. 537, 545–549; Banner 2012, p. 402.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 538–543; Churchwell 2004, p. 285.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 401.
- ^ Summers 1985, p. 301; Spoto 2001, pp. , 537, 545–549; Banner 2012, pp. 401–402.
- ^ a b c Spoto 2001, pp. 574–577; Banner 2012, pp. 410–411.
- ^ a b Spoto 2001, pp. 580–583; Banner 2012, pp. 411–412.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 411.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 580–583; Churchwell 2004, p. 302; Banner 2012, pp. 411–412.
- ^ a b Kormam, Seymour (August 18, 1962). "Marilyn Monroe Ruled 'Probable Suicide' Victim". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: October 21, 2015.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 411–413.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 580–583; Banner 2012, pp. 411–413.
- ^ a b Banner 2012, s. 427.
- ^ Hopper, Hedda (August 6, 1962). "Pill Death Secret Goes With Marilyn". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: September 23, 2015.
- ^ "Brilliant Stardom and Personal Tragedy Punctuated the Life of Marilyn Monroe". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. August 6, 1962. Erişim tarihi: September 23, 2015.
- ^ a b c Spoto 2001, pp. 594–597; Banner 2012, pp. 427–428.
- ^ "Top 10 Celebrity Grave Sites: Marilyn Monroe". Time. Time Inc. Erişim tarihi: October 15, 2015.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 297–318, for different theories proposed by Spoto, Summers, Brown & Barham, and Donald Wolfe.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 605–606; Churchwell 2004, pp. 88, 300.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 606.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 33.
- ^ a b Banner 2012, ss. 124, 177.
- ^ Banner 2012, pp. 172–174; Hall 2006, p. 489.
- ^ Stacey, Michelle (May 2008). "Model Arrangement". Smithsonian Institution. Erişim tarihi: September 11, 2015.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 172–174, 210–215, 566; Churchwell 2004, p. 9; Banner 2012, pp. 172–174.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 238.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 38, 175, 343.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 21–26, 181–185.
- ^ Dyer 1986, pp. 33–34; Churchwell 2004, pp. 25, 57–58; Banner 2012, p. 185; Hall 2006, p. 489.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 194.
- ^ a b Dyer 1986, ss. 19–20.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, p. 25; Banner 2012, pp. 246–250.
- ^ Spoto 2001, pp. 224–225, 342–343; Churchwell 2004, p. 234.
- ^ Dyer 1986, p. 45; Harris 1991, pp. 40–44; Banner 2012, pp. 44–45, 184–185.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 44–45.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 273–276.
- ^ Dotinga, Randy (August 3, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe: Anything but a dumb blonde". The Christian Science Monitor. Erişim tarihi: June 16, 2016.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 244.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, p. 63 for West; Banner 2012, p. 325.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 170–171.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 201.
- ^ a b Dyer 1986, ss. 19, 20.
- ^ Harris 1991, ss. 40–44.
- ^ Dyer 1986, p. 21; Dyer 1991, p. 58.
- ^ Dyer 1986, ss. 29–39.
- ^ Haskell 1991, p. 256; Spoto 2001, p. 249.
- ^ Dyer 1986, p. 39; Churchwell 2004, p. 82.
- ^ Dyer 1986, s. 57, quoting Haskell.
- ^ Dyer 1986, s. 40.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 254–256.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 184.
- ^ Banner 2012, s. 8.
- ^ Banner 2012, ss. 239–240.
- ^ Handyside 2010, ss. 1–16.
- ^ Handyside 2010, s. 2, quoting Mulvey.
- ^ Spoto 2001, p. 396; Belton 2005, p. 103.
- ^ Spoto 2001, s. 396.
- ^ Solomon 2010, s. 110.
- ^ "From the archives: Sex Symbol Diana Dors Dies at 52". The Guardian. May 5, 1964. Erişim tarihi: September 11, 2015.
- ^ Chapman 2001, ss. 542–543.
- ^ "Filmmaker interview – Gail Levin". Public Broadcasting Service. July 19, 2006. Erişim tarihi: July 11, 2016.
- ^ Frail, T.A. (November 17, 2014). "Meet the 100 Most Significant Americans of All Time". Smithsonian Institution. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ "Beatles Named 'Icons of Century'". BBC. October 16, 2005. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ "The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons Complete Ranked List" (Basın açıklaması). VH1. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, pp. 12–15; Hamscha 2013, pp. 119–129.
- ^ Schneider, Michel (November 16, 2011). "Michel Schneider's Top 10 Books About Marilyn Monroe". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ "The Blond Marilyn Monroe". Time. June 14, 1999. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015. (Abonelik gerekiyor (. ))
- ^ Churchwell 2004, ss. 33, 40.
- ^ a b c Churchwell, Sarah (January 9, 2015). "Max Factor Can't Claim Credit for Marilyn Monroe". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ Fuller & Lloyd 1983, p. 309; Marcus 2004, pp. 17–19, 309; Churchwell 2004, pp. 21–42.
- ^ Churchwell 2004, s. 8.
- ^ Stromberg, Joseph (August 5, 2011). "Remembering Marilyn Monroe". Smithsonian Institution. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ Wild, Mary (May 29, 2015). "Marilyn: The Icon". British Film Institute. Erişim tarihi: September 10, 2015.
- ^ Fuller & Lloyd 1983, p. 309; Steinem & Barris 1987, pp. 13–15; Churchwell 2004, p. 8.
- ^ a b "Happy Birthday, Marilyn". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. May 29, 2001. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ a b Rose 2014, ss. 100–137.
- ^ Haskell 1991, ss. 254–265.
- ^ Banner, Lois (July 21, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe: Proto-feminist?". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Erişim tarihi: November 7, 2015.
- ^ Steinem & Barris 1987, pp. 15–23; Churchwell 2004, pp. 27–28.
- ^ Haskell, Molly (November 22, 1998). "Engineering an Icon". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ a b Hamscha 2013, ss. 119–129.
- ^ Banner, Lois (August 5, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe, the Eternal Shape Shifter". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ Thomson, David (August 6, 2012). "The Inscrutable Life and Death of Marilyn Monroe". New Republic. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ Kael, Pauline (July 22, 1973). "Marilyn: A Rip-Off With Genius". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ Bradshaw, Peter (May 9, 2012). "Cannes and the Magic of Marilyn Monroe". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
- ^ Ebert, Roger (January 9, 2000). "Some Like It Hot". Roger Ebert.com. Erişim tarihi: July 11, 2016.
- ^ Rosenbaum, Jonathan (December 1, 2005). "Marilyn Monroe's Brains". Chicago Reader. Erişim tarihi: August 30, 2015.
Sources[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- Banner, Lois (2012). Marilyn: The Passion and the Paradox. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4088-3133-5.
- Belton, John (2005). American Cinema, American Culture. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-288627-6.
- Chapman, Gary (2001). "Marilyn Monroe". Browne, Ray B.; Browne, Pat (Edl.). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
- Churchwell, Sarah (2004). The Many Lives of Marilyn Monroe. Granta Books. ISBN 978-0-312-42565-4.
- Dyer, Richard (1991) . "Charisma". Gledhill, Christine (Ed.). Stardom: Industry of Desire. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-05217-7.
- Şablon:Long dash (1986). Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31026-1.
- Fuller, Graham; Lloyd, Ann, (Edl.) (1983). Illustrated Who's Who of the Cinema. Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-923450-6.
- Hall, Susan G. (2006). American Icons: An Encyclopedia of the People, Places, and Things that Have Shaped Our Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98429-8.
- Hamscha, Susanne (2013). "Thirty Are Better Than One: Marilyn Monroe and the Performance of Americanness". Rieser, Klaus; Fuchs, Michael; Phillips, Michael (Edl.). ConFiguring America: Iconic Figures, Visuality, and the American Identity. Intellect. ISBN 978-1-84150-635-7.
- Handyside, Fiona (August 2010). "Let's Make Love: Whiteness, Cleanliness and Sexuality in the French Reception of Marilyn Monroe". European Journal of Cultural Studies. 3 (13), s. 1–16. doi:10.1177/1367549410363198.
- Harris, Thomas (1991) . "The Building of Popular Images: Grace Kelly and Marilyn Monroe". Gledhill, Christine (Ed.). Stardom: Industry of Desire. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-05217-7.
- Haskell, Molly (1991). "From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies". Butler, Jeremy G. (Ed.). Star Texts: Image and Performance in Film and Television. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2312-X.
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- Lev, Peter (2013). Twentieth-Century Fox: The Zanuck–Skouras Years, 1935–1965. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-74447-9.
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- Monroe, Marilyn (2010). Comment, Bernard (Ed.). Fragments: Poems, Intimate Notes, Letters. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
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Vikipedi'nin kardeş projelerinden
hakkında daha fazla bilgi edinin
- [http:// Resmî site]
- Curlie'de Sebastian James/Çalışma1 (DMOZ tabanlı)
- IMDb'de Sebastian James/Çalışma1
- TCM Movie Database'de Sebastian James/Çalışma1
- Discogs'ta Sebastian James/Çalışma1 diskografisi
- Marilyn Monroe at the British Film Institute
- Monroe's file at the Federal Bureau of Investigation website
- "Marilyn Monroe: Still Life" A website containing clips and essays related to PBS's American Masters documentary on Monroe
- Sebastian James/Çalışma1 – Find a Grave