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Kara mamba

Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Dendroaspis polylepis
Korunma durumu

Asgari endişe altında (IUCN 3.1)[2]
Biyolojik sınıflandırma Bu sınıflandırmayı düzenle
Âlem: Animalia
Şube: Chordata
Sınıf: Squamata
Familya: Elapidae
Cins: Dendroaspis
Tür: D. polylepis
İkili adlandırma
Dendroaspis polylepis
Sinonimler [3]
  • Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis
    (Günther, 1864)
  • Dendraspis polylepis
    (Günther, 1864)
  • Dendraspis angusticeps
    (Boulenger, 1896)
  • Dendraspis antinorii
    (Peters, 1873)
  • Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii
    (Peters, 1873)

Dendroaspis polylepis veya Kara mamba, Dendroaspis cinsine bağlı bir yılan türüdür.[4]

Özellikler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kara mamba örneği

İnce, uzun ve silindir şeklindedir. Başı tabutumsu, gözleri orta boydadır.[5][6] Tipik yetişkin uzunluğu 2-3 metre (6 ft 7 in-9 ft 10 in) aralığında olsa da 4,3-4,5 metre (14 ft 1 in-14 ft 9 in) uzunluğa erişebilir.[6][7] Afrika'daki zehirli en uzun yılandır.[8][9] Zehirli yılanlar genelinde ise en uzun olan Ophiophagus hannahdan sonra gelir.[10] Ön dişleri maksillada olup 6,5 milimetre (0,26 in) uzunluğa erişebilir[10][11] Kuyruğu uzun ve incedir.[5] Kaydedilen gövde ağırlığı ortalama 1,6 kilogram (3,5 lb)[12] ağırlığında olsa da türün incelenen yedisinin ortalama ağırlığı 1,03 kilogram (2,3 lb) olup, 1,01 metre (3 ft 4 in) uzunluğu ve 520 gram (18 oz) ağırlığı ile 2,57 metre (8 ft 5 in) uzunluğu ve 2,4 kilogram (5,3 lb) ağırlığı arasında değişkenlik göstermiştir.[13]

Konuyla ilgili yayınlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Boycott, R.C. (1992) An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland.: The Conservation Trust of Swaziland
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. (2004) The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo].: African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61
  • Broadley,D.G. (1962) On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards.: Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. (2007) Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas.: Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Laita, Mark (2013) Serpentine.: Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200
  • LeBreton, Matthew (1999) A working checklist of the herpetofauna of Cameroon.: Netherlands Committee for IUCN, 160 pp.
  • Loveridge,A. (1957) On a third collection of reptiles taken in Tanganyika by C.J.P. Ionides, Esq.: Tanganyika Notes and Records 43: 1-19
  • Monzel, Markus M (2012) Gifte, Gifttiere, Menschen – eine Geschichte voller (Miss)Verständnisse.: Draco 13 (51): 4-25
  • Phelps, Tony (2002) A study of the Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with particular reference to long-term-refugia.: Herpetological Bulletin (80):7-19
  • Spawls, S., Branch,B. (1995) The Dangerous Snakes of Africa.: Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. (2006) Guide des serpents d’Afrique occidentale. Savane et désert. [Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger].: IRD Editions, Paris, 226 pp.
  • Valverde, J. (2008) Mambas.: Reptilia (Münster) 13 (70): 18-25
  • Venter, Jan A.; Werner Conradie (2015) A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications: Koedoe 57 (1): 1-25. doi: 10.4102/koedoe.v57i1.1247
  • Armitage, W. W. (1965) Observations on Differences in Morphology and Behavior of Dendroaspis angusticeps and Dendroaspis polylepis.: Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr. (1): 12-16
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. (2003) Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide.: Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • CASTOE, Todd A.; ERIC N. SMITH, RAFE M. BROWN and CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON (2007) Higher-level phylogeny of Asian and American coralsnakes, their placement within the Elapidae (Squamata), and the systematic affinities of the enigmatic Asian coralsnake Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann, 1834).: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151, 809–831
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. (2010) Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea.: Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Pitman,C.R.S. (1974) A guide to the snakes of Uganda.: Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. (2004) Les serpents des environs de Bandafassi (Sénégal oriental).: Bull. Soc. Herp. France 109: 5-34
  • Auerbach,R.D. (1987) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana.: Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. (1993) The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia.: Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Broadley, D.G. (1959) The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes.: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972]
  • Broadley, D.G. (1961) Snakes of Southem Rhodesia. 11. The Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis).: Afr. Wild Life 15: 299-302.
  • Chifundera, K. (1990) Snakes of Zaire and their bites.: Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. (2007) Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun.: MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Diochot, Sylvie; Anne Baron, Miguel Salinas, Dominique Douguet, Sabine Scarzello, Anne-Sophie Dabert-Gay, Delphine Debayle, Valérie Friend, Abdelkrim Alloui, Michel Lazdunski & Eric Lingueglia (2012) Black mamba venom peptides target acid-sensing ion channels to abolish pain.: Nature 490: 552–555
  • Föhrenbach,H. (1982) Dendroaspis polylepis in Westafrika.: Herpetofauna 4 (17): 34
  • Günther,A. (1864) Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa Regions.: Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 303-314 [310]
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch (2013) Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist.: Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115
  • Lanza, B. (1990) Amphibians and reptiles of the Somali Democratic Republic: check list and biogeography.: Biogeographia, 14: 407-465 [1988]
  • Loveridge,A. (1936) African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History.: Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122
  • MARITZ, B. & ALEXANDER, G.J. (2010) Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Gu¨nther, 1864).: African Herp News (51): 27-28
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig (1873) Über zwei Giftschlangen aus Afrika und über neue oder weniger bekannte Gattungen und Arten von Batrachiern.: Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1873 (Mai): 411-418
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ (2014) A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries.: Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Trape, J.-F.; Mané, Y. & Baldé, C. (2005) La mamba noir Dendroaspis polylepis (Serpentes: Elapidae) en Afrique de l’Ouest.: Bull. Soc. Herp. France 115: 31-36
  • Trutnau, Ludwig & Alfred Wallner (2014) Beobachtungenj an der Schwarzen Mamba, Dendroaspis polylepis, im Terrarium.: Terraria Elaphe 2014 (4): 76-80
  • BAYNHAM, T. (2010) Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Gu¨nther, 1864).: African Herp News (51): 25-27
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. (1991) A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys.: Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. (1991) The Herpetofauna of Northern Mwinilunga Distr., Northw. Zambia.: Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (37): 519-538
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner (2011) The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist.: Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61
  • Frank, Norman & Ramus, Erica (1995) A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World.: Pottsville: N G Publishing Inc., 377 pp.
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. (2000) Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.: Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen (2010) A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique.: Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193
  • Loveridge, A. (1956) On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq.: Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Pietersen, Darren W. Pietersen, Errol W. Haacke, Wulf D. (2013) First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique.: Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. (2002) A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa.: Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • David, Patrick, and Ivan Ineich, 1999: Les serpents venimeux du monde: systematique et repartition. Dumerilia, vol. 3. 3-499.

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ "Dendroaspis polylepis". Bütünleştirilmiş Taksonomik Bilgi Sistemi. 
  2. ^ Branch, W.R.; Trape, J.-F.; Luiselli, L.; Spawls, S.; Penner, J.; Howell, K.; Msuya, C.A.; Ngalason, W. (2021). "Dendroaspis polylepis". IUCN Tehdit Altındaki Türlerin Kırmızı Listesi. 2021: e.T177584A15627370. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T177584A15627370.enÖzgürce erişilebilir. Erişim tarihi: 19 Kasım 2021. 
  3. ^ Uetz, Peter; Hallermann, Jakob. "Dendroaspis polylepis Günther, 1864". Reptile Database. 29 Ekim 2015 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 10 Eylül 2018. 
  4. ^ "GBIF". 27 Aralık 2022 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 25 Mart 2024. 
  5. ^ a b Spawls, Stephen; Howell, Kim; Drewes, Robert; Ashe, James (2017). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa (2.2yayıncı=Bloomsbury bas.). ss. 1201-1202. ISBN 978-1-4729-3561-8. 
  6. ^ a b Marais, Johan (2004). A complete guide to the snakes of southern Africa (New bas.). Struik. ss. 95-97. ISBN 978-1-86872-932-6. 
  7. ^ Haagner, G. V.; Morgan, D. R. (1993). "The maintenance and propagation of the Black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis at the Manyeleti Reptile Centre, Eastern Transvaal". International Zoo Yearbook. 32 (1): 191-196. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1993.tb03534.x. 
  8. ^ "Black Mamba | National Geographic". National Geographic Society. 10 Eylül 2010. 1 Mart 2021 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 12 Mart 2021. 
  9. ^ "Black Mamba Facts". Live Science. 23 Aralık 2014. 5 Şubat 2021 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 12 Mart 2021. 
  10. ^ a b Mattison, Chris (1987). Snakes of the World. Facts on File, Inc. ss. 84, 120. ISBN 978-0-8160-1082-0. 
  11. ^ FitzSimons, Vivian F. M. (1970). A Field Guide to the Snakes of Southern Africa (Second bas.). HarperCollins. ss. 167-169. ISBN 978-0-00-212146-0. 
  12. ^ "Black mamba". National Geographic. 10 Eylül 2010. 30 Mayıs 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 3 Aralık 2010. 
  13. ^ Branch, W. R.; Haagner, G. V.; Shine, R. (1995). "Is there an ontogenetic shift in mamba diet? Taxonomic confusion and dietary records for black and green mambas (Dendroaspis: Elapidae)". Herpetological Natural History. 3: 171-178. 

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