Transkafkasya Askerî Bölgesi
Transkafkasya Askerî Bölgesi (Rusça: Закавказский военный округ / Zakavkazskiy voenniy okrug; anlam: Tranfkafkasya Askerî Okrugu, kısaca: ЗакВО), Sovyet Silahlı Kuvvetleri'nin askerî bölgelerinden biri. Askerî bölgenin tarihi, Ermenistan, Azerbaycan ve Gürcistan'ın SSCB'ye katıldıkları Mayıs 1921'de başlar ve Sovyetler Birliği'nin dağılmasından sonra 1990'lı yılların başında feshedilerek bir ordular grubu olarak yeniden örgütlendirilmiştir.
Komutanlar 1945-91[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- Maslennikov, Ivan (1946 - 1947), Armii General
- Tolbukhin, Fyodor Ivanovich (1947 - 1949), Sovyetler Birliği Mareşali;
- Antonov, Alexei Innokentevich (1950 - 1954), Armii General
- Fedyuninsky, Ivan (1954 - 1957), Colonel General in August 8, 1955 - Armii General
- Rokossowski, Konstantin (1957), Sovyetler Birliği Mareşali
- Galitski, Kuzma N. (1958 - 1961), Army General;
- Stuchenko, Andrei Trofimovich (1961 - 1968), General Polkovnik, 13 Nisan 1964 tarihinde Armii General
- Kurkotkin, Semyon Konstantinovich (1968 - 1971), General Polkovnik
- Melnikov, Paul V. (October 1971 - 1978), General Polkovnik
- Koulishev O.F. (1978 - August 1983), General Polkovnik
- Arkhipov, Vladimir Mikhailovich (August 1983 - July 1985), General Polkovnik;
- Kochetov, Konstantin Alekseevich (July 1985 - May 1988), General Polkovnik, 29 Nisan 29 1988 tarihinde Armii General
- Rodionov, Igor (May 1988 - August 1989), General Polkovnik
- Patrikeev Valery Anisimovich (August 1989 - September 26, 1992), General Polkovnik
1980'li yılların sonlarında muharebe düzeni[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
In the late 1980s dispositions within the District were as follows:
- 104th Guards Airborne Division VDV, Ganja
- 173rd Guards District Training Centre, Tbilisi
- Seventh Guards Army, HQ Yerevan, Armenian SSR
- 15th Motor Rifle Division, Kirovakan
- 127th Motor Rifle Division, Leninakan (now Russian 102nd Military Base)
- 164th Motor Rifle Division, Yerevan
- Fourth Army, HQ Baku, Azerbaijan SSR
- Ninth Army, HQ Kutaisi, Georgian SSR
Rusya Transkafkasya Ordular Grubu[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Following the fall of the USSR, the District became the Group of Russian Forces in the Transcaucasus (Russian Группа российских войск в Закавказье - ГРВЗ; GRVZ). After many of the divisions listed above had dissolved or become part of the former republics' armed forces, in the mid 1990s the GRVZ's dispositions were:
- Headquarters, Tbilisi
- 12th Military Base, Batumi, Adjara AR, Georgia
- 50th Military Base, Gudauta, Abkhazia AR, Georgia (former 345th Independent Guards Airborne Regiment, which later became 10th Independent Peacekeeping Airborne Regiment)
- 62nd Military Base, Akhalkalaki, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia
- 102nd Military Base, Gyumri, Armenia
- 137th Military Base, Vaziani, Georgia (former 173rd Guards District Training Centre)
- Other smaller formations and units, including the 142nd Tank Repair Factory, Tbilisi, and an independent helicopter squadron
General Major Aleksander Studenikin, former deputy commander of the Moscow Military District's 20th Army, commanded the Group in 2004 with General (Major?) Andrei Popov as his deputy. The Russian base at Vaziani was withdrawn in the late 1990s and an agreement over the withdrawal of the 12th and 62nd Bases by 2008-09 was made in 2005.
Russia had maintained two Russian military bases in Georgia (the 62nd Base in Akhalkalaki and the 12th in Batumi), remnants of the Soviet era, but the bases are in the process of being withdrawn. The Akhalkalaki 62nd base was officially transferred ahead of schedule to Georgia on June 27, 2007. The 12th Military Base in Batumi was also transferred early; scheduled for 2008, it was actually transferred on November 13, 2007. The ‘Zvezda’ command post (probably the former District war headquarters) in the town of Mtskheta, just north of Tblisi, was handed over by early September 2005.  Due to the espionage conflict between Russia and Georgia, the Transcaucasus Group of Forces headquarters in Tbilisi was closed down ahead of schedule: 287 Russian servicemen left Georgia by December 31, 2006.
Even after the GRVZ is totally withdrawn, Russian troops will remain in peacekeeping roles in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de-jure parts of Georgia. There are about 1,600 men on the Abkhazian-Georgian boundary (serving alongside UNOMIG) and a battalion in South Ossetia. According to the Russian authorities, the Gudauta military base is also now used by the peacekeeping forces, but no international monitoring has ever been allowed there.
Not[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- ^ V.I. Feskov, K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov, The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945-91, Tomsk University Publishing House, Tomsk, 1994
- ^ Nino Kopaleishvili, ‘Bomb Injures Russian Military Official’, Tbilisi Messenger, April 8, 2004, p.5
- ^ Russia Transfers Akhalkalaki Military Base to Georgia. Civil Georgia. June 27, 2007. Accessed on June 29, 2007.
- ^ ‘Zvezda has been transferred to Georgia’, Georgian MOD website, www.mod.gov.ge/?=E&id=10, accessed 29 October 2005.
- ^ Russia to withdraw Tbilisi garrison early - minister, RIA Novosti, October 10 2006