Karma ekonomi

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Karma ekonomi, özel sektörü ve devletin ekonomiyi yönlendirmesini içeren, piyasa ekonomileri ve planlı ekonomiler arasında her ikisinin de özelliklerini yansıtan bir ekonomik sistemdir. [1] Karma ekonominin tek bir net tanımı yoktur [2], serbest piyasalar ve devlet müdahaleciliğinin, kamu ve özel sektörün veya piyasalar ve ekonomik planlama arasındaki bir karışım şeklinde farklı tanımlar geliştirilmiştir. Karma biçimleri farklılık göstermekle birlikte çoğunlukla her ülkede karma ekonomi sistemi geçerlidir. [3]

Genellikle karma ekonomi, ekonomik koordinasyon için piyasaların hakimiyeti, üretim araçlarının özel mülkiyetiyle kar amaçlı işletmeler ve sermaye birikiminin iktisadi faaliyetlerin arakasındaki temel itici gücü oluşturduğu düzen şeklinde karakterize edilir. Serbest piyasa ekonomisinin aksine hükümet, ekonomide yaşanabilecek düşüşleri önleme amacıyla maliye ve para politikaları tasarlar, ekonomi üzerinde dolaylı makroekonomik nüfuza sahiptir ve işsizlik ile finansal kriz dönemlerinde sosyal refahın teşviki için piyasalara müdahalede bulunur. [4]

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  1. ^ (NB)
    • Schiller, Bradley. The Micro Economy Today, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2010, p. 15. "Mixed ecoonomy - An economy that uses both market signals and government directives to allocate goods and resources." This follows immediately from a discussion on command economies and market mechanism.
    • Stilwell, Frank. Political Economy: The Contest of Economic Ideas, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press. 2006. Stilwell
    • Hendricks, Jean and Gaoreth D. Myles. Intermediate Public Economics, The MIT Press, 2006, p. 4 "the mixed economy where individual decisions are respected but the government attempts to affect these through the policies it implements."
    • Gorman, Tom. The Complete Idiots Guide to Economics, Alpha Books (2003), p. 9"In a market economy, the private-sector businesses and consumers decide what they will produce and purchase, with little government intervention....In a command economy, also known as a planned economy, the government largely determines what is produced and in what amounts. In a mixed economy, both market forces and government decisions determine which goods and services are produced and how they are distributed."
  2. ^ A variety of definitions for mixed economy.
  3. ^ Karma ekonomi, http://www.enfal.de/sosyalbilimler/k/017.htm, erişim tarihi: 18 Eylül 2014, "..her ülkede "karma ekonomi" sistemi geçerli durum­dadır. Bununla beraber ekonominin "kar­ma" olan derecesi ülkeler arasında önemli farklılık göstermektedir." 
  4. ^ Pollin, Robert. Resurrection of the Rentier, University of Massachusetts: http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/other_publication_types/NLR28008.pdf, p. 141-142: "The underlying premise behind the mixed economy was straightforward. Keynes and like-minded reformers were not willing to give up on capitalism, in particular two of its basic features: that ownership and control of the economy’s means of production would remain primarily in the hands of private capitalists; and that most economic activity would be guided by ‘market forces’, that is, the dynamic combination of material self-seeking and competition. More specifically, the driving force of the mixed economy, as with free-market capitalism, should continue to be capitalists trying to make as much profit as they can. At the same time, Keynes was clear that in maintaining a profit-driven marketplace, it was also imperative to introduce policy interventions to counteract capitalism’s inherent tendencies—demonstrated to devastating effect during the 1930s calamity—toward financial breakdowns, depressions and mass unemployment. Keynes’s framework also showed how full employment and social welfare interventions could be justified not simply on grounds of social uplift, but could also promote the stability of capitalism."