Ara verme etkisi

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Ara verme etkisi öğrenmenin zamana yayıldığında daha iyi olması olgusudur. Sıkıştırılmış sunum yerine aralıklı sunumun tercih edilmesidir. Pratik olarak bu etki "tıkınma" denebilecek (yoğun ve son dakika) sınav gecesi çalışmasının uzun bir zaman çerçevesinde aralıklı çalışmak kadar etkili olmayacağını öne sürer. Bu etki öğreneni zorlar, ancak uzun süreçte daha iyi öğrenme sağlar.

Bu etki ilk olarak Hermann Ebbinghaus tarafından tanımlanmıştır. 1885'te ayrıntılı olarak Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie (Bellek: Deneysel Psikolojiye Bir Katkı) kitabında incelenmiştir. Bu tespit bellek ile ilgili hatırlama, tanıma ve frekans tahmini  gibi çok çalışmalarda konu edilmiştir. Araştırmacılar ara verme etkisine çok sayıda açıklama getirmiş ve hatırlamaya yardımcı olduğunu ifade etmişlerdir. 

Ayrıca Bakınız[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Appleton-Knapp, S.L., Bjork, R.A., & Wickens, T.D. (2005). Examining the spacing effect in advertising: Encoding variability, retrieval processes, and their interaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(2), 266-276.
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  • Ebbinghaus, Hermann (1885). "[Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology]" (German). Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie. Trans. Henry A. Ruger & Clara E. Bussenius. Leipzig, Germany: Duncker & Humblot. http://books.google.com/books?id=kfA0AAAAMAAJ&oe=UTF-8. 
  • Greene, R.L. (1989). Spacing effects in memory: Evidence for a two-process account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15(3), 371-377.
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  • Mammarella, N., Avons, S.E., & Russo, R. (2004). A short-term perceptual priming account of spacing effects in explicit cued-memory tasks for unfamiliar stimuli. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16(3), 387-402.
  • Mammarella, N., Russo, R., & Avons, S.E. (2002). Spacing effects in cued-memory tasks for unfamiliar faces and nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 30(8), 1238-1251.
  • Pyc, M. A. & Rawson, K. A. (2009). Testing retrieval efforts hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 437-447. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2009.01.004
  • Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Relearning Attenuates the Benefits and Costs of Spacing. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, doi:10.1037/a0030498
  • Russo, R., Ma, & Wilks, J. (1998). Revising current two-process accounts of spacing effects in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24(1), 161-172.
  • Toppino, T.C., & Bloom, L.C. (2002). The spacing effect, free recall, and two-process theory: A closer look. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(3), 437-444.
  • Whitten, W.B. & Bjork, R.A. (1977). Learning from tests: Effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 16, 465-478.
  • Wozniak, P.A., & Gorzelanczyk, E.J. (1994). Optimization of repetition spacing in the practice of learning. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 54, 59-62.
  • Young, D.R., & Bellezza, F.S. (1982). Encoding variability, memory organization, and the repetition effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8(6), 545-559. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.8.6.545

Dış referanslar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]