Multics

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Multics ("Multiplexed Information and Computing Service") eskiden kullanılmış aynı anda birkaç işlem yapabilen (time-sharing) işletim sistemi idi. Proje 1964 yılında Cambridge, Massachusetts'de başlamıştır. Son çalışan işletim sistemi ise 30 Ekim 2000'de Kanada Ulusal Savunma Departmanı'nda kullanılmış ve daha sonra kapatılmıştır.[1]


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The literature contains a large number of papers about Multics, and various components of it; a fairly complete list is available here.[2] The most important and/or informative ones are listed below.

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  • Jerome H. Saltzer, Introduction to Multics (MIT Project MAC, 1974) is a considerably longer introduction to the system, geared towards actual users.
  • Elliott I. Organick, The Multics System: An Examination of Its Structure (MIT Press, 1972) is the standard work on the system, although it documents an early version, and some features described therein never appeared in the actual system.
  • V. A. Vyssotsky, F. J. Corbató, R. M. Graham, Structure of the Multics Supervisor (AFIPS 1965) describes the basic internal structure of the Multics kernel.
  • Jerome H. Saltzer, Traffic Control in a Multiplexed Computer System (MIT Project MAC, June 1966) is the original description of the idea of switching kernel stacks; one of the classic papers of computer science.
  • R. C. Daley, P. G. Neumann, A General Purpose File System for Secondary Storage (AFIPS, 1965) describes the file system, including the access control and backup mechanisms.
  • R. J. Feiertag, E. I. Organick, The Multics Input/Output System. Describes the lower levels of the I/O implementation.
  • A. Bensoussan, C. T. Clingen, R. C. Daley, The Multics Virtual Memory: Concepts and Design, (ACM SOSP, 1969) describes the Multics memory system in some detail.
  • Paul Green, Multics Virtual Memory - Tutorial and Reflections is a good in-depth look at the Multics storage system.
  • Roger R. Schell, Dynamic Reconfiguration in a Modular Computer System (MIT Project MAC, 1971) describes the reconfiguration mechanisms.

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