Multics ("Multiplexed Information and Computing Service") eskiden kullanılmış aynı anda birkaç işlem yapabilen (time-sharing) işletim sistemi idi. Proje 1964 yılında Cambridge, Massachusetts'de başlamıştır. Son çalışan işletim sistemi ise 30 Ekim 2000'de Kanada Ulusal Savunma Departmanı'nda kullanılmış ve daha sonra kapatılmıştır.
Ek okumalar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
The literature contains a large number of papers about Multics, and various components of it; a fairly complete list is available here. The most important and/or informative ones are listed below.
- F. J. Corbató, V. A. Vyssotsky, Introduction and Overview of the Multics System (AFIPS 1965) is a good introduction to the system.
- F. J. Corbató, C. T. Clingen, J. H. Saltzer, Multics — The First Seven Years (AFIPS, 1972) is an excellent review, written after a considerable period of use and improvement over the initial efforts.
- J. J. Donovan, S. Madnick, Operating Systems, is a fundamental read on operating systems.
- J. J. Donovan, Systems Programming, is a good introduction into systems programming and operating systems.
Teknik detaylar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- Jerome H. Saltzer, Introduction to Multics (MIT Project MAC, 1974) is a considerably longer introduction to the system, geared towards actual users.
- Elliott I. Organick, The Multics System: An Examination of Its Structure (MIT Press, 1972) is the standard work on the system, although it documents an early version, and some features described therein never appeared in the actual system.
- V. A. Vyssotsky, F. J. Corbató, R. M. Graham, Structure of the Multics Supervisor (AFIPS 1965) describes the basic internal structure of the Multics kernel.
- Jerome H. Saltzer, Traffic Control in a Multiplexed Computer System (MIT Project MAC, June 1966) is the original description of the idea of switching kernel stacks; one of the classic papers of computer science.
- R. C. Daley, P. G. Neumann, A General Purpose File System for Secondary Storage (AFIPS, 1965) describes the file system, including the access control and backup mechanisms.
- R. J. Feiertag, E. I. Organick, The Multics Input/Output System. Describes the lower levels of the I/O implementation.
- A. Bensoussan, C. T. Clingen, R. C. Daley, The Multics Virtual Memory: Concepts and Design, (ACM SOSP, 1969) describes the Multics memory system in some detail.
- Paul Green, Multics Virtual Memory - Tutorial and Reflections is a good in-depth look at the Multics storage system.
- Roger R. Schell, Dynamic Reconfiguration in a Modular Computer System (MIT Project MAC, 1971) describes the reconfiguration mechanisms.
Güvenlik[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- Paul A. Karger, Roger R. Schell, Multics Security Evaluation: Vulnerability Analysis (Air Force Electronic Systems Division, 1974) describes the classic attacks on Multics security by a "tiger team".
- Jerome H. Saltzer, Michael D. Schroeder, The Protection of Information in Computer Systems (Proceedings of the IEEE, September 1975) describes the fundamentals behind the first round of security upgrades; another classic paper.
- M. D. Schroeder, D. D. Clark, J. H. Saltzer, D. H. Wells. Final Report of the Multics Kernel Design Project (MIT LCS, 1978) describes the security upgrades added to produce an even more improved version.
- Paul A. Karger, Roger R. Schell, Thirty Years Later: Lessons from the Multics Security Evaluation (IBM, 2002) is an interesting retrospective which compares actual deployed security in today's hostile environment with what was demonstrated to be possible decades ago. It concludes that Multics offered considerably stronger security than most systems commercially available in 2002.
Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]
- multicians.org is a comprehensive site with a lot of material
- Honeywell, Inc., MULTICS records, 1965-1982. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.
- Official source code archive at MIT
- Link page to various Multics information
- Multics repository at Stratus Computer
- Multics at Universitaet Mainz
- Active project to emulate the Honeywell 6180 Multics CPU
- Various scanned Multics manuals
- Multicians.org and the History of Operating Systems A critical review of Multicians.org, plus a capsule history of Multics.