Hugo Kasırgası

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Hugo Kasırgası 1989 Eylül ayında, Saffir-Simpson Kasırga Ölçeğine göre 5 şiddetinde; Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Porto Riko, St. Croix, Güney Karolina ve Kuzey Karolina'yı vuran ve 82 kişinin ölümüne ve 56.000 kişinin evsiz kalmasına neden olan kasırgadır.

Hugo, Afrika'nın kıyılarından 9 Eylül'de ayrılan tropikal bir dalgadan köken aldı. Fırtına batı kıyılarını izleyip, 11'inde tropikal bir fırtınaya ve 13'ünde bir kasırgaya dönüştü ve Birleşik Devletler'e doğru yol almaya başladı. İlk kez Güney Karolina'da 4 şiddetindeyken görüldü.

Kasırga, ozamana kadar kaydedilmiş en yıkıcı kasırgalardan biri olan Frederic Kasırga'sını geçerek 10 milyar dolar hasara yol açmıştır. Hugo, üç yıl sonrasında Andrew Kasırgasınca geçilmiş, sonrasında ise 2005'de meydana gelen Katrina Kasırgası da bunları sollamıştır.

Fırtınanın kaynağı[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Hugo'nun kaynağı 9 Eylül'de Afrika kıyılarını terkeden fırtınaların toplanmasıyla oluşan bir kümeydi.[1] Hugo, batı kıyılarını izlerken durmadan güçlenerek 11'inde tropikal bir fırtınaya ve 13'ünde kasırgaya dönüştü.[1] Hugo, şiddetli zirvesine Porto Riko'nun batısından birkaç yüz mil uzaktayken ulaştı. daha kuzey/kuzeybatı yönüne doğru yöneldi ve bu sırada hala şiddetini arttırmaya devam ediyordu. 17'sinde Hugo'nun yönü Guadeloupe üzerindeydi. Bundan kısa süre sonra, Hugo kuzey/kuzey-batı yönünde hızlandı ve 19'unda Porto Riko'nun kuzeyinde konumlandı.[1] Kuzey kıyılarını bir süre daha izlemeye başladı, Birleşik Devletler'e doğru yol alan alçak basınç sistemiyle ilişkilendilirilen bir yönde sonuçlandığında 21'inde Hugo Florida'nın doğusuna birkaç yüz mil kala konumlandı.[1] Hugo kuzeybatıya doğru yöneldi ve Saffir-Simpson Kasırga Ölçeğine göre 4 şiddetiyle Güney Karolina'da Eylül'ün 22'sinde görüldü.[1] Fırtına, karaya doru devam etti ve bu günün ertesinde tropikal fırtınaya dönüşerek zayıfladı.[1] Fırtına etkisini azaltarak karaya doğru devam etti ve Eylül'ün 23'ünde geçiş zayıflamasını yapmaktaydı.[1]

Hazırlıklar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Savannah şehri, Hugo'nun önceden beklenmesiyle boşaltıldı ama burada fırtının yıldırım sağanaklarından ve sınırlı etkisinden daha fazlası görülmedi. Hugo Savannah'ı vurduğunda, 1898 Atlantik fırtına mevsiminden beri Georgia'da görülen ilk fırtına oldu.

Güney Karolina valisi Carroll Campbell fırtınanın ilerlemesiyle şehrin boşaltılması kararını verdi; bu çoğu hayatın kurtulmasını sağladı.

Vuruş[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Bölgeye göre ölümler
(tahmini)[2]
Bölge Ölen
Birleşik Devletler 35
Porto Riko 12
Guadeloupe 11
Montserrat 1
Virgin Adaları 6
Antigua ve Barbuda 1
Saint Kitts ve Nevis 1
Toplam 76

Hugo caused $7 billion (1989 USD) in damage in the mainland Birleşik Devletler[3]. At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, and by three other storms since then. It remains the sixth costliest hurricane in U.S. history. An additional $3 billion of damages was reported throughout the Caribbean. Therefore, total damages from the storm were $10 billion (1989 USD).

Sources differ on the number of people killed by Hugo, with some citing the American Meteorological Society's figure of 49, and others claiming 56 deaths [4]. Some government agency sources claim only 32 deaths in the United States.

Karayipler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Severe damage was reported throughout the islands of the Caribbean. The storm caused an estimated $3 billion (1989 US dollars) in damages in the Caribbean (including $1 billion in Puerto Rico and the USVI.[3])

St. Croix[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

There was massive looting and unrest, prompting President George H.W. Bush to send troops to St. Croix in Operation Hawkeye. [kaynak belirtilmeli] It also resulted in the first operational deployment of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), when the New Mexico-1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT)was deployed to assist in medical care needs of the stricken island.

Montserrat[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

90% of all structures were destroyed in the British overseas territory, including the island's hospital and virtually all the homes of its 12,000 residents. Tourism and agriculture were also severely hit. Total damage was estimated at $100–300 million dollars (1989 USD); the island became reliant on aid as a result.[5][6]

Additionally, the local bat population was devastated, with an estimated 90% decrease in numbers following Hugo's passage. The species Chiroderma improvisum has not been seen on Montserrat since, and it is feared that it may be extinct on the island.[7]

Porto Riko[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Damage in Puerto Rico was severe, especially in the eastern part of the island. The agricultural sector was devastated, with the banana and coffee crops being almost completely wiped out. Heavy rains caused severe flooding in the vicinity of San Juan; in addition, several roads and bridges were washed away.[6]

In all, 12 deaths in Puerto Rico are attributed to Hugo,[2] six of which occurred in the southern city of Guayama where some residents were electrocuted by downed power lines. Nearly 28,000 people were left homeless by the storm.[6]

Birleşik Devletler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Güney Carolina[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Mobile homes destroyed by Hugo's storm surge
Hugo proved to be devastating to beachfront property

While downtown Charleston, South Carolina suffered extensive damage, the greatest damage was reported in the northern suburbs of Mount Pleasant, Sullivan's Island, and Isle of Palms. Both islands were cut off from the mainland by destruction of their bridges. Along the coast, Hugo destroyed many houses and the storm surge piled boats on top of each other.

The storm's most intense wind and storm surge came ashore still further north between the small towns of Awendaw and McClellanville. An extraordinary 20-foot storm surge was reported between Cape Romain and Bulls Bay. Most mature trees in the Francis Marion National Forest were felled. Many of the stands were old growth longleaf pine, an important habitat for some endangered species. In McClellanville, a small fishing town, residents took refuge in Lincoln High School, and were surprised by the sudden tidal surge which flooded the school. With water pouring into the rooms, the refugees helped one another in pitch darkness to climb into the space in the hanging ceiling above the rooms. All survived.

According to Governor Carroll Campbell, there were about 3,000 tornadoes embedded within the hurricane, which accounts for extensive damage in some areas not within the path of the eyewall. The term "tornado" was a misnomer; the intense localized winds are more properly referred to as vortices. (See Hurricane Andrew for more information on hurricane vortices.)

Campbell also stated that enough timber was lost within South Carolina to build a home for every family in West Virginia. An immense salvage effort was undertaken to harvest downed pine trees for pulpwood before they deteriorated to the point where they could not be used. Still standing timber that appeared usable for lumber and plywood frequently had annular separations of the rings that made them dangerous to saw and nearly impossible to cut into plies, so they were also downgraded into pulpwood, leading to such a drop in pulpwood prices that eventually much of the salvage effort ceased.

Inland, the storm destroyed homes, timber, and the area's cotton crop. Rainfall totals associated with Hugo were slightly below the average for a direct United States strike, likely due to the storm's rapid forward motion. The maximum amount measured was 10.28" at Edisto Island, South Carolina.[8]

Kuzey Karolina[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

By the time it reached Charlotte, Kuzey Karolina, Hugo was still a Category 1 hurricane and was still strong enough to topple many trees across roads and houses leaving many without power, closing schools for as long as two weeks, and spawning several tornadoes. The storm took Charlotte by surprise; the city is 200 miles (320 km) inland and is frequently a stopover for people fleeing from the coast. Damage to trees was reported across much of western North Carolina.

North Carolina's coastline also suffered significant damage along its southward-facing beaches, including Brunswick County and the Outer Banks. In all, twenty-nine counties in North Carolina were declared federal disaster areas, with damages in that state alone estimated at $1 billion (1989 US dollars).[9]

Orta-Atlantik[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

The last death caused by the storm was in East Aurora, New York near Buffalo when the winds toppled a tree onto a motorist.

Aftermath[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Red Cross response[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Extensive relief aid was provided throughout by The Salvation Army, the Red Cross and various churches.

St. Croix[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

On the island of St. Croix, looting and lawlessness reigned in the aftermath of Hugo. Phone lines, power lines, hospitals, banks, the airport and 90% of all structures were severely damaged or destroyed. Three days after the storm hit, the governor of the Virgin Islands asked United States President George H. W. Bush for federal assistance in restoring order to the island. On September 20, members of the XVIII Airborne "Contingency Corps" were dispatched to the island as part of Operation Hawkeye. Military police patrolled the island for two months, imposing a dusk-to-dawn curfew. Cargo planes brought in food, water, mobile hospital units, and other supplies while offering free evacuation flights for anyone wanting to leave for the mainland.

Ekonomik etkisi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

After the storm, Governor Carroll Campbell said that the storm destroyed enough timber in Güney Karolina to frame a home for every family in the state of Batı Virjinya.

FEMA kritiği[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In South Carolina, which bore the brunt of the storm, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was slow in responding. Senator Fritz Hollings referred to them as "a bunch of bureaucratic jackasses" during a speech on the floor of the United States Senate. An investigation was launched, which led to some reforms in FEMA procedures that helped the agency do a somewhat better job during Andrew, the next catastrophic hurricane to strike the Birleşik Devletler. However, FEMA was criticized severely in 2005 for its similarly insufficient response to Hurricane Katrina, while private relief agencies and corporations such as Wal-Mart were praised for their prompt and comprehensive response to the disaster. FEMA's relevancy was questioned in Katrina's aftermath.

Çekilme[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Due to the extensive damage, the name Hugo was retired following this storm, and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced with Humberto in the 1995 season.

Popüler kültürde[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

This disaster was included as one of several different disaster scenarios in the 1993 video game SimCity 2000.

Kaynaklar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

İngilzce Vikipedi'deki 14 Mart 2008 tarihli Hurricane Hugo maddesi

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]