Igraine

Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi

Igraine (Çeşitli kaynaklarda Agyana, *Eigyr, Hierna, Igraine, Igrayne, Igern, Izerla, Izerna, Ugerne, Ygerne, Ygraine, Yguerne olarak geçen) Kral Arthur 'un annesi. Igraine da bilinen Latince de, Igerna olarak Gal Eigr (aynı Orta Welsh, Fransızca Ygraine (olarak Eigyr) Eski Fransızca içinde Ygerne veya Igerne), Le Morte d'Arthur Ygrayne -genellikle Igraine veya Igreine olarak -ve modernize olarak Parzival Arnive olarak . İlk kocası Gorlois'in ölümünden sonra Uther Pendragon'un karısı olur. Kral Arthur'un annesi. Arthur'un babası Uther, o ve kocası Cornwall Dükü (çeşitli isimler Gorlois, Hoel ve Tintagel) Uther'in sarayındaki bir ziyafete katıldığında ona aşık oldu. Igerne, Uther'in ilerlemelerini iffetli bir şekilde azarladı ve kocasını onunla birlikte Cornwall'a dönmeye ikna etti - Uther'ı öfkelendiren ve onu Cornwall'ı işgal etmeye ve dükün kalelerini kuşatmaya sevk eden bir eylem. Merlin, Uther'i sihirli bir şekilde dükün suretine dönüştürdü ve geceyi Igerne ile geçirebilmesi için onu Tintagel kalesine soktu. Arthur bu vesileyle dünyaya geldi. Bu arada, dük, Uther'in adamlarıyla savaşırken öldürüldü ve Uther, Arthur'un babasının kimliği konusunda kafası karışmış olan Igerne ile hızla evlendi. Arthur'un doğumunda, Merlin onu gizlice büyütülmek üzere götürdü ve Igerne, yıllar sonra taç giyme törenine kadar onunla tanışmadı.

Geoffrey of Monmouth'un Historia Regum Britanniae'sinde Igerna hikâyeye Cornwall Dükü Gorlois'in karısı olarak giriyor. Thomas Malory'nin Le Morte d'Arthur'unda Gorlois'ten kızları Elaine, Morgause ve Morgan le Fay'dir.[1] Brut Tysilio'da Cornwall'lı Cador onların oğullarıdır. John Hardyng'in Chronicle'ı, Cador Arthur'un erkek kardeşini "annesinin yanından" olarak adlandırır. Igerne ilk olarak, Amlawdd'ın kızı olduğu Welsh Culhwchand Olwen'de EIGYR olarak görünür. Galce metinlerinde Gormant adında bir oğlu vardır. Yedi erkek kardeşi Gwrvoddw, Llygadrudd Emys ve Gweir adında beş savaşçı içerir. Ayrıca Goleuddyd adında bir kız kardeşi var. İngiliz Arthour ve Merlin, üç kocasını Uther'den önce verir: Harinan, Hoel ve Tintagel. Çeşitli kocalarıyla birlikte, Arthur'un kız veya üvey kız kardeşleri olan Anna, Morgan Ie Fay, Morgause, Elaine, Blasine, Belisant ve Brimesent adlı bir ila beş kızı vardı.

Merlin, bebek Arthur'u Igraine'den alıyor. The Boy's King Arthur (1922) için NC Wyeth'in bir illüstrasyonu: "Böylece çocuk Merlin'e teslim edildi ve o da onu ortaya çıkardı."

Igraine ilk ortaçağ Galli metinde "Eigyr" olarak görünür Culhwch ve Olwen çeşitli çocuklarının biri olarak Amlawdd Wledig .[2] Onun kardeşleri Rieingulid, Aziz annesi dahil Illtud . Chretien de Troyes'e göre, Igerne, Uther'in ölümünden sonra Galloway ülkesine tüm hazinesiyle birlikte gitti ve Canguin Kayası adlı kaleyi inşa etti. Arthur dahil herkes onun öldüğünü düşünürken, Igerne uzun yıllar kalenin hükümdarı olarak hizmet etti. Gawain onu oradaki maceraları sırasında keşfetti. Heinrich von dem Tiirlin de benzer bir hikâye anlatır; Igerne, Gansguoter adında bir büyücüyle evlenir ve onun bakire kızlarıyla birlikte Salie kalesine çekilir. Vulgate romanlarında, Uther Pendragon'un ölümünden kısa bir süre önce veya Arthur'un taç giyme töreninden kısa bir süre sonra bilinmeyen sebeplerden ölür. Wolfram's Parzival'deki muadili ARNIVE olarak adlandırılmıştır.

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kullanılan kaynaklar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • ---------, C.R. Barker, ed. The Arthurian Bibliography, II: Subject Index. Cambridge: Brewer, 1983.
  • ---------, A.O.H. Jarman, and Brynley F. Roberts, eds. The Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1991.
  • ---------, ed. Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages: A Collaborative History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959; 2nd ed. 1961.
  • ---------, ed. The Arthurian Bibliography, III: Supplement 1979-1983. Cambridge: Brewer, 1987.
  • ---------, ed. The Questfor Arthurs Britain. New York: Praeger, 1968.
  • ---------, Geoffrey Ashe, Sandra Ness Ihle, Marianne E. Kalinke, and Raymond H. Thompson, eds. The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Updated Paperback Edition. New York: Garland, 1996.
  • ---------. "Historical Arthur." Special number oiArthuriana, 5.3 (1995).
  • ---------. (2) The Legendary History of Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950.
  • ---------. (2) Wales and the Arthurian Legend. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1956.
  • ---------. (2) "A Certain Very Ancient Book." Speculum, 56 (1981), 301-23.
  • ---------. (2) "By South Cadbury Is That Camelot.. Excavations at Cadbury Castle 1966-70. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972.
  • ---------. (3) The Discovery of King Arthur. New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1985.
  • ---------. (3) Vita Merlini ("The Life of Merlin*), ed. and trans. J.J. Parry. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1925.
  • ---------. (3) "Cadbury-Camelot: A Fifteen-Year Perspective." Proceedings of the British Academy, 68 (1982), 355-88.
  • ---------. Arthurian Bibliography I and II, ed. C. Pickford and R. Last, Arthurian Studies 3 and 6, 2 vols., Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1981–3.
  • ---------. Arthurian Bibliography III: 1978–1992, ed. Caroline Palmer, Arthurian Studies 31, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1998.
  • ---------. Arthurian Bibliography IV: 1993–1998, ed. Elaine Barber, Arthurian Studies 49, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2002.
  • ---------. Artusroman und Intertextualität, Giessen: Schmitz, 1990.
  • ---------. Bibliographical Bulletin of the InternationalArthurian Society/Bulletin Bibliographique de la Society Internationale Arthurienne, 1 (1949)-48 (1996).
  • ---------. Celtic Aneirin: Y Gododdin, Britain's Oldest Heroic Poem, ed. and trans. A.O.H. Jarman. Llandysul: Gomer, 1988.
  • ---------. Collections Barber, Richard, ed. TheArthurian Legends:An IllustratedAnthology. New York: Littlefield Adams, 1979.
  • ---------. Culhwch ac Olwen, ed. Rachel Bromwich and D. Simon Evans. Cardiff: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1988.
  • ---------. Das Wunderbare in der Arthurischen Literatur: Probleme und Perspektiven, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2003.
  • ---------. 'Arthurian Literature and Film, 2004–7', forthcoming in Arthurian Literature, 26.
  • ---------. Geoffrey of Monmouth. (1) Historia Regum Britanniae, ed. Neil Wright. Cambridge: Brewer, 1985.
  • ---------. Gildas. In History from the Sources. Vol. 7, The Ruin of Britain, col. and trans. Michael Winterbottom. Chichester: Phillimore, 1978.
  • ---------. Index of Proper Names in French Arthurian Verse Romances 1150–1300, University of Toronto Press, 1982.
  • ---------. Lorgaireacht an tSoidhigh Naomhtha: An Early Modern Irish Translation of the *Quest of the Holy Grail,"ed. and trans. Sheila Falconer. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Study, 1963.
  • ---------. Medieval Arthurian Literature: A Guide to Recent Research, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1055, New York and London: Garland, 1996.
  • ---------.New Arthurian Encyclopedia, expanded and revised edn, New York: Garland, 1991, and London: St James's Press, 1993.
  • ---------. Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí, Fionn Mac Cumhaill: Images of the Gaelic Hero, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1988.
  • ---------. The Mabinogion, trans. Jeffrey Gantz. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.
  • ---------. The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, Updated Paperback Edition, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 931, New York: Garland, 1996.
  • ---------. 'A New Study of the Gododdin', Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 35 (1998), 45–56.
  • ---------. 'Arthurian Literature, Art, and Film, 1995–99', Arthurian Literature, 18 (2001), 193–255.
  • ---------. 'Changing Places? 5th and 6th Century Culture in Britain and Ireland', Minerva, 13.6 (2002), 38–40.
  • ---------. 'The Nature of Arthur', Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 27 (1994), 1–31.
  • Ackerman, R. W., An Index of the Arthurian Names in Middle English, Stanford University Press and Oxford University Press, 1952.
  • Adams, Jeremy duQuesnay. "Sidonius and Riothamus: A Glimpse of the Historical Arthur?" Arthurian Literature XII, ed. James R Carley and Felicity Riddy. Woodbridge: Brewer, 1993, pp. 157–64.
  • Alcock, Leslie. (1) Arthurs Britain: History andArchaeology a.d. 367-634 . London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 1971.
  • Anderson, Graham, King Arthur in Antiquity, London: Routledge, 2004.
  • Ashe, Geoffrey. (1) Avalonian Quest. London: Methuen, 1982.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S., 'The Questions of King Arthur's Existence, and of Romano-British Naval Operations', Haskins Society Journal, 2 (1990), 13–28. Bromwich, Rachel and D. Simon Evans, eds., Culhwch and Olwen, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1992.
  • Brengle, Richard L. Arthur, King of Britain: History, Romance, Chronicle, and Criticism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.
  • Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads.. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1961; 2nd ed. 1978.
  • Bruce, Christopher W., The Arthurian Name Dictionary, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2063, New York: Garland, 1998.
  • Bruce, James Douglas. The Evolution of Arthurian Romancefrom the Beginnings Down to the Year 1300.2 vols. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1928.
  • Campbell, James, ed. The Anglo-Saxons. Oxford: Phaidon, 1982; Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982.
  • Carley, James P., ed., and David Townsend, trans. The Chronicle of Glastonbury Abbey. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1985.
  • Celtic Bromwich, Rachel, A.O.H. Jarman, and Brynley E Roberts, eds. The Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1991.
  • Chambers, E.K. Arthur of Britain. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1927.
  • Collingwood, R.G., and J.N.L. Myres. Roman Britain and the English Settlements. London: Oxford University Press, 1937.
  • Dark, Ken, Britain and the End of the Roman Empire, Stroud: Tempus, 2000.
  • Darrah, John. Paganism in Arthurian Romance. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1994. Dumville, David. "Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend." History, 62 (1977), 173-91.
  • Dean, Christopher. Arthur of England: English Attitudes to KingArthur and the Knights of the Round Table in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
  • Dumville, David, ' "Nennius" and the "Historia Brittonum" ', Studia Celtica, 10–11 (1975–6), 78–95.
  • Ferrante, Joan M. The Conflict of Love and Honor: The Medieval Tristan Legend in France, Germany, and Italy. The Hague: Mouton, 1973.
  • Field, P. J. C., 'Nennius and his History', Studia Celtica, 30 (1996), 159–65.
  • Fletcher, Robert Huntington. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906; 2nd ed. Roger Sherman Loomis. New York: Franklin, 1966.
  • Fleuriot, Leon. Les Origines de la Bretagne. Paris: Payot, 1980.
  • Flutre, Louis-Ferdinand, Table des noms propres avec toutes leurs variantes, figurant dans les romans du Moyen Age écrits en français ou en provençal, Poitiers: Centre d'études supérieures de civilisation médiévale, 1962.
  • Fulford, Michael J., 'Byzantium and Britain', Medieval Archaeology, 33 (1989), 1–5.
  • Goetinck, Glenys Witchard. Peredur: A Study of Welsh Tradition in the Grail Legends. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1975.
  • Goodrich, Peter, ed. The Romance of Merlin: An Anthology. New York: Garland, 1990.
  • Green, Thomas, Concepts of Arthur, Stroud: Tempus, 2007.
  • Guerreau-Jalabert, Anita, Index des motifs narratifs dans les romans arthuriens en vers des XXe et XIIIe siècles, Publications romanes et françaises 202, Geneva: Droz, 1992.
  • Henig, Martin, 'Roman Britons after AD 410', Archaeology, 68 (2002), 9–12. Higham, Nicholas, King Arthur: Myth-Making and History, London: Routledge, 2002.
  • Hutton, Ronald, 'Arthur and the Academics', in Ronald Hutton, Witches, Druids and King Arthur: Studies in Paganism, Myth and Magic, London: Hambledon & London, 2003, pp. 39–58.
  • Isaac, G. R., 'Readings in the History and Transmission of the "Gododdin"', Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, 37 (1999), 55–78.
  • Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone, The International Popular Tale and Early Welsh Tradition. The Gregynog Lectures 1961, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1961.
  • Jarman, A.O.H., and Gwilym Rees Hughes, eds. A Guide to Welsh Literature. 2 vols. Swansea: Christopher Davies, 1976,1979.
  • Knight, Stephen. Arthurian Literature and Society. New York: St. Martin's, 1983.
  • Koch, John T., ed. and trans., The Gododdin of Aneirin, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1997.
  • Kohler, Erich. Ideal und Wirklichkeit in der hofiscben Epik. Tubingen, 1956.
  • Korrel, Peter. An Arthurian Triangle: A Study of the Origin, Development and Characterization of Arthur, Guinevere and Modred. Leiden: Brill, 1984.
  • Krueger, Roberta L. Women Readers and the Ideology of Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Lacy, Norris J., ed., A History of Arthurian Scholarship, Arthurian Studies 65, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2006.
  • Lacy, Norris J., ed. Medieval Arthurian Literature: A Guide to Recent Research. New York: Garland, 1996.
  • Lacy, Norris J., et al., eds. The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Updated Paperback Edition. New York: Garland, 1996.
  • Lacy, Norris J. and Geoffrey Ashe, eds., The Arthurian Handbook, 2nd edn, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 765, New York: Garland, 1997.
  • Lacy, Norris J. and Raymond H. Thompson, eds., with Marianne E. Kalinke, Geoffrey Ashe, and Sandra Ness Ihle, 'The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, Supplement i', Arthurian Yearbook, 3 (1993), 227–69.
  • Lagorio, Valerie M., and Mildred Leake Day, eds. KingArthur Through the Ages. 2 vols. New York: Garland, 1990.
  • Lapidge, Michael, and David Dumville, eds. Gildas: New Approaches. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1984.
  • Lapidge, Michael and David Dumville, eds., Gildas: New Approaches, Studies in Celtic History 5, Cambridge: Boydell Press, 1984.
  • Last, Rex, ed. The Arthurian Bibliography, 3. Cambridge: Brewer, 1985.
  • Lazar, Moshe. Amour courtois etftriamors dans la litterature du Xlle sihle. Paris: Klincksieck, 1964.
  • Littleton, C. Scott, and A. C. Thomas, 'The Sarmatian Connection: New Light on the Origin of the Arthurian and Holy Grail Legends', Journal of American Folklore, 91 (1978), 512–27.
  • Littleton, C. Scott, and Linda A. Malcor. From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends ofKingArthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail. New York: Garland, 1994.
  • Loomis, Roger Sherman, ed. Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages: A Collaborative History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959; 2nd ed. 1961.
  • Loomis, Roger Sherman. (1) The Development of Arthurian Romance. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.
  • Mac Cana, Proinsias. The Mabinogi. 1977; 2nd ed., Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1992.
  • Mediavilla, Cindy, Arthurian Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1999.
  • Mermier, Guy R., ed. Courtly Romance: Detroit, 1984.
  • Minary, Ruth, and Charles Moorman. An Arthurian Dictionary. 1978; Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1990.
  • Morris, Christopher, 'Tintagel', Current Archaeology, 159 (1998), 84–8.
  • Morris, John. The Age of Arthur. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973. "Nennius." In History from the Sources. Vol. 8, British History and the WelshAnnals, ed. and trans. John Morris. Chichester: Phillimore, 1980.
  • Morris, Rosemary. The Character of King Arthur in Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Brewer, 1982.
  • Murphy, Gerard. The Ossianic Lore and Romantic Tales of Medieval Ireland. Dublin: Three Candles, 1961.
  • Olton, Bert, Arthurian Legends on Film and Television, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Owen, D.D.R., ed. Arthurian Romance: Seven Essays. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1971.
  • Padel, O.J. "Tintagel: An Alternative View." In A Provisional List of Imported Pottery in Post-Roman Western Britain and Ireland, ed. Charles Thomas. Redruth: Institute of Cornish Studies, 1981.
  • Padel, O. J., Arthur in Medieval Welsh Literature, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.
  • Phillips, Graham, and Martin Keatman. King Arthur: The True Story. London: Century Random House, 1992.
  • Pickford, Cedric E., and Rex Last, eds. The Arthurian Bibliography, I: Author Listing. Cambridge: Brewer, 1981.
  • Piriou, Jean-Pierre. "Un Texte arthurien en moyen-breton: Le Dialogue entre Arthur, Roi des Bretons, et Guynglaff" in Actes du 14e Congres International Arthurien, ed. Charles Foulon, et al. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes 2, 1985, vol. II, pp. 473–99.
  • Rahtz, Philip. Glastonbury. London: Batsford/English Heritage, 1993.
  • Reiss, Edmund, Louise Horner and Beverly Taylor, Arthurian Legend and Literature: An Annotated Bibliography, vol. 1, Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 415, New York: Garland, 1984.
  • Reiss, Edmund, Louise Horner Reiss, and Beverly Taylor. Arthurian Legend and Literature: An Annotated Bibliography. I: The Middle Ages. New York: Garland, 1984.
  • Ruck, E. H., An Index of Themes and Motifs in Twelfth-Century French Arthurian Poetry, Arthurian Studies 25, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991.
  • Scott, John. The Early History of Glastonbury. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1981. Tadock, J.S.P. (1) "The Dates of the Arthurian Saints Legends." Speculum, 14 (1939), 345-65.
  • Stevens, John. Medieval Romance: Themes and Approaches. London: Hutchinson, 1973.
  • The Arthurian Annals: The Tradition in English from 1250 to 2000, ed. Daniel P. Nastali and Phillip C. Boardman, 2 vols., Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Thomas, Charles, English Heritage Book of Tintagel, London: Batsford, 1993.
  • Thompson, Raymond H. and Norris J. Lacy, eds., 'The Arthurian Legend in Literature, Popular Culture, and the Performing Arts, 1999–2004', Arthurian Literature, 22 (2005), 100–75.
  • Tolstoy, Nikolai. The Questfor Merlin. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1985. Westwood, Jennifer. Albion. London: Granada, 1985.
  • Vinaver, Eugene (1). Form and Meaning in Medieval Romance. Leeds: Maney, 1966.
  • West, G., Index of Proper Names in French Arthurian Prose Romances, University of Toronto Press, 1978.
  • Wilhelm, James J., ed. The Romance of Arthur: An Anthology ofMedieval Texts in Translation. New, Expanded Edition. New York: Garland, 1993.
  • Wolfzettel, Friedrich, ed., Arthurian Romance and Gender: Selected Proceedings of the XVIIth International Arthurian Congress, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995.
  • Wood, Ian. "The Fall of the Western Empire and the End of Roman Britain." Britannia, 18 (1987), 251-62.
Arthur'un Merlin'in 13. yüzyıl nesir versiyonundaki anlayışı (c. 1280-1290)