Estonya'da din

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Estonya'da din (2011)[1][2]

  Dinsizlik (%54.14)
  Lütercilik (%9.91)
  Diğer Hristiyanlar (%2.00)
  Diğer dinler (%1.25)
  Dinini açıklamayanlar (%16.55)

Tarihsel olarak Lüteran Protestan bir ulus[3][4][5] olan Estonya, dünyadaki "en az dindar" ülkelerden biridir ve nüfusun yalnızca %14'ü, dini günlük yaşamın önemli bir parçası olarak görmektedir.[6]

Dindar nüfus çoğunlukla Hıristiyan olup, en çok Ortodoks Hristiyanlar ve Lüteran Hristiyanlar'dır.[7] Ringo Ringvee'ye göre "din siyasi veya ideolojik savaş alanında hiçbir zaman önemli bir rol oynamadı" ve "1930'ların sonlarında devlet ile Lüteran kilisesi arasındaki yakın ilişkiler için hüküm süren eğilimler 1940'ta Sovyet işgali ile sona erdi". Ayrıca, Sovyet politikası devlet ateizminden ötürü "dini gelenek zincirinin çoğu ailede koptuğu" belirtilmiştir.[4][8] İkinci Dünya Savaşı'ndan önce, Estonya halkının yaklaşık %80'i Protestan'dı.

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ "PC0454: AT LEAST 15-YEAR-OLD PERSONS BY RELIGION, SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 31 DECEMBER 2011". Statistics Estonia. 31 Aralık 2011. 14 Ekim 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 9 Ocak 2014. 
  2. ^ "PHC 2011: over a quarter of the population are affiliated with a particular religion". Statistics Estonia. 29 Nisan 2013. 24 Kasım 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 9 Ocak 2014. 
  3. ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 Haziran 2015). Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition (İngilizce). Springer. s. 131. ISBN 9781493922796. Estonia is considered Protestant when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia as a Protestant ex-Communist society. 
  4. ^ a b Triin Edovald; Michelle Felton; John Haywood; Rimvydas Juskaitis; Michael Thomas Kerrigan; Simon Lund-Lack; Nicholas Middleton; Josef Miskovsky; Ihar Piatrowicz; Lisa Pickering; Dace Praulins; John Swift; Vytautas Uselis; Ilivi Zajedova (2010). World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Marshall Cavendish. s. 1066. ISBN 9780761478966. It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia is the European Union (EU) country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief. This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union annexed Estonia in 1940, church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from 1941 through 1944, and in World War II (1939-1945), and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia under Soviet rule 1944 until 1989, when some measure of tolerance was introduced. 
  5. ^ Rausing, Sigrid (2004). History, Memory, and Identity in Post-Soviet Estonia: The End of a Collective Farm (İngilizce). Oxford University Press. s. 96. ISBN 9780199263189. Protestantism has done much to inform the moral world view of the Estonians, particularly the process of distinguishing themselves from the Russians. 
  6. ^ "Estonians least religious in the world". EU Observer. 11 Şubat 2009. 5 Temmuz 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 9 Ocak 2014. 
  7. ^ "Eestis on 90 usuvoolu: lilla leegi hoidjad, kopimistid, tulekummardajad..." [Estonia has 90 religious affiliations: Keepers of the violet flame, Kopimists, Fire worshipers]. Postimees. 29 Nisan 2013. 26 Temmuz 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 9 Ocak 2014. 
  8. ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 Eylül 2011). "Is Estonia really the least religious country in the world?". The Guardian. For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church [...] ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940.