Batı Şeria Duvarı

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Temmuz 2011 itibariyle bariyer yolu: 438 kilometre (272 mi) bitti, 58 kilometre (36 mi) yapım aşamasında, 212 kilometre (132 mi) planlandı.

Ayrım Duvarı, İsrail Batı Şeria bariyeri veya daha çok bilinen ismi ile İsrail Duvarı, Batı Şeria'daki Yeşil Hat üzerinde yer alan bir bariyerdir. İsrail, bariyeri teröre karşı bir güvenlik unsuru olarak kabul ederken, Filistinliler bariyeri ırksal ayrımcı veya apartheid olarak tanımlamaktadır.[1][2][3] Toplam 708 kilometre (440 mi) uzunluğundaki bariyer, Yeşil Hat'tın uzunluğunun iki katından fazladır ve %15'i İsrail içinden veya üzerinden geçerken, geri kalan %85'i bazı bölgelerde 18 kilometre (11 mi) kadar içe girecek şekilde Batı Şeria’dan geçmektedir. Bu durum Batı Şeria bölgesinin yaklaşık %9’unu izole ederek, bu bölgelerde yaşayan 25.000 Filistinliyi Batı Şeria'nın diğer bölgelerinden izole etmektedir.[4]

Bu bariyer, Eylül 2000'de başlayan İkinci İntifada'da inşa edildi ve İsrail hükümeti tarafından isyanın getirdiği şiddet dalgasını durdurmak için gerektiği savunuldu.[5] İsrail hükümeti, Batı Şeria’dan yapılan intihar bombalamalarının sayısının, duvarın inşası öncesini kapsayan 2000-2003 periyodundaki 73’ten, çeşitli bölümlerinin tamamlanmış olduğu 2003-2006 yılları arasında 12’ye düşmüş olmasından ötürü bariyerin etkili olduğunu söylemiştir.[6][7] Bariyer, zamanında artmış gerginlik için geçici bir güvenlik önlemi olarak sunulmuş olsa da, İsrail ile Filistin arasındaki gelecekteki siyasi sınırla hızla ilişkilendirilmiştir.[8]

Bariyerin muhalifleri, güvenlik adı altında İsrail'in Filistin topraklarını ele geçirmeye çalıştığını ve tek taraflı olarak yeni sınırlar kurarak barış müzakerelerini baltaladığını savunmaktadır.[9][10] Muhalifler, bazı yerlerde doğuya doğru Yeşil Hat'tan sapan, birçok Filistinlinin seyahatini ciddi şekilde kısıtlayan ve Batı Şeria'ya veya İsrail'e iş için gidip gelmelerini engelleyen bir duvara karşı çıkmaktadırlar.[11][12] Uluslararası Adalet Divanı, bariyerin uluslararası hukuka aykırı olduğunu belirten bir danışma kararı verdi.[13][14] 2003 yılında Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu, duvarın uluslararası hukuka aykırı olduğunu ve kaldırılması gerektiğini belirten bir karar aldı. Oylama, 12 çekimser oyla 144 destekleyen, 4'te karşı çıkan oy ile kabul edildi.[15]

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  1. ^ "The Security Fence, the Anti-Terrorism Barrier, the Wall". 18 Kasım 2013. 20 Ekim 2017 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. 
  2. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/terrorism/palestinian/pages/saving%20lives-%20israel-s%20anti-terrorist%20fence%20-%20answ.aspx#1
  3. ^ Dona J. Stewart, The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives, Routledge, 2013 p. 223.
  4. ^ UN OCHA (Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs), ‘Barrier Update: Special Focus’, (2011), http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_barrier_update_july_2011_english.pdf 2016-09-12 tarihinde Wayback Machine sitesinde arşivlendi.
  5. ^ "Questions and Answers". Israel's Security Fence. The State of Israel. 22 Şubat 2004. 3 Ekim 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 17 Nisan 2007. The Security Fence is being built with the sole purpose of saving the lives of the Israeli citizens who continue to be targeted by the terrorist campaign that began in 2000. The fact that over 800 men, women and children have been killed in horrific suicide bombings and other terror attacks clearly justifies the attempt to place a physical barrier in the path of terrorists. It should be noted that terrorism has been defined throughout the international community as a crime against humanity. As such, the State of Israel not only has the right but also the obligation to do everything in its power to lessen the impact and scope of terrorism on the citizens of Israel. 
  6. ^ "The Anti-Terrorist Fence vs. Terrorism". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 Ocak 2004 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 18 Eylül 2013. 
  7. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (10 Ocak 2007). "Death toll of Israeli civilians killed by Palestinians hit a low in 2006". Washington Bureau. McClatchy Newspapers. 20 Kasım 2008 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 16 Nisan 2007. Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in 2006 than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in 2000. Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in 2006, down from a high of 289 in 2002 during the height of the uprising. Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since 2000[...] An Israeli military spokeswoman said one major factor in that success had been Israel's controversial separation barrier, a still-growing 400-kilometre (250 mi) network of high-tech fencing, concrete walls and other obstacles that cuts through parts of the West Bank. 'The security fence was put up to stop terror, and that's what it's doing,' said Capt. Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces. [...] Opponents of the barrier grudgingly acknowledge that it's been effective in stopping bombers, though they complain that its route should have followed the border between Israel and the Palestinian territories known as the Green Line. [...] IDF spokeswoman Meir said Israeli military operations that disrupted militants planning attacks from the West Bank also deserved credit for the drop in Israeli fatalities. 
  8. ^ Busbridge, Rachel (14 Haziran 2016). "The wall has feet but so do we: Palestinian workers in Israel and the 'separation' wall". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 44 (3), s. 373–90. doi:10.1080/13530194.2016.1194187. 
  9. ^ "Under the Guise of Security: Routing the Separation Barrier to Enable Israeli Settlement Expansion in the West Bank". Publications. B'Tselem. Aralık 2005. 5 Nisan 2007 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 16 Nisan 2007. The fact that the Separation Barrier cuts into the West Bank was and remains the main cause of human rights violations of Palestinians living near the Barrier. Israel contends that the Barrier's route is based solely on security considerations. This report disputes that contention and proves that one of the primary reasons for choosing the route of many sections of the Barrier was to place certain areas intended for settlement expansion on the "Israeli" side of the Barrier. In some of the cases, for all intents and purposes the expansion constituted the establishment of a new settlement. 
  10. ^ Geraldine Bedell (14 Haziran 2003). "Set in stone". London: The Guardian. 30 Eylül 2019 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 17 Eylül 2013. The Palestinian Authority, meanwhile, preoccupied with the road map and its own internal politics, 'has neglected the wall,' according to Jamal Juma. Yet the wall is crucial to the road map. At the very least, it is an attempt to preempt negotiations with a land grab that establishes new borders (and what the road map calls 'facts on the ground' that must be heeded). Arguably it is more devious: an attempt to undermine negotiations altogether – because what Palestinian Authority could sign up to the fragmented 'state' the wall will create? 
  11. ^ Barahona, Ana (2013). Bearing Witness – Eight weeks in Palestine. London: Metete. s. 42. ISBN 978-1-908099-02-0. 
  12. ^ Geraldine Bedell (14 Haziran 2003). "Set in stone". London: The Guardian. 30 Eylül 2019 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 17 Eylül 2013. The wall shuts out the world beyond, creating an eerie silence and an absence of landscape. Eventually, it will encircle the town, but already, there is only one gate in and out of Qalquilya. Moving to and from the town is a draining process of waiting in the sunshine while papers are taken away and thought about. You can't take a car from one side to the other. When you finally get through, you have to trudge through a no-man's-land to pick up a bus or taxi. ... Until the start of the current round of violence (the second intifada, in September 2000), 85,000 Israelis and Palestinians used to pour into Qalquilya every week to visit the shops and markets. Goods were cheaper than in Israel. No one comes any more, partly out of fear, partly because it's so hard to get in or out. And now the barrier threatens to cut the town off from 80 per cent of its agricultural land and 19 of its wells.…Before the construction started, half of Qalquilya's income came from agriculture. Now, 4,000 people – 10 per cent of the population – have left. An additional 2,200 heads of household have gone to find work elsewhere, leaving their families behind. ... Unemployment is now 69 per cent. With its bottleneck entrance so often corked, the town is coming close to economic strangulation. More than 600 businesses have closed and many residents have been unable to pay their municipal taxes, with the result that the Qalquilya municipality owes about 3.5 m shekels (£490,000) to the Israeli Electric Company, which is threatening to cut off the city's supply. ... The story of overcrowding and economic peril will be repeated in other Palestinian cities, according to Jamal Juma, co-ordinator of the Palestinian Environmental Network: 'In 10 years, there will be no room to expand. Forced off the land, Palestinians will be clustered into already heavily populated urban areas; with no alternative sources of income, they will be a source of cheap labour for Israeli factories.' 
  13. ^ "International Court of Justice finds Israeli barrier in Palestinian territory is illegal". UN News Centre. United Nations. 9 July 2004.
  14. ^ "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory". International Court of Justice. 9 July 2004. Archived from the original on 2 September 2004.
  15. ^ Semple, Kirk (22 October 2003). "U.N. Resolution Condemns Israeli Barrier". The New York Times.