Babür İmparatorluğu hükümdarları

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Babür imparatorları Hindistan alt kıtasında Babür İmparatorluğu'nu inşa etti ve yönetti. Babürler 1526'dan itibaren Hindistan'ın bazı bölgelerine hükmetmeye başladı ve 1700'de alt kıtanın çoğuna hükmetti. Bundan sonra hızla gerilediler, ancak 1850'lere kadar nominal olarak bölgeleri yönettiler. Babürler, Orta Asya'dan gelen Türk-Moğol kökenli Timurlu hanedanının bir koluydu. Kurucuları , Fergana Vadisi'nden (modern Özbekistan'da ) bir Timur prensi olan Babur , Timur'un doğrudan soyundan geliyordu ve ayrıca Timur'un bir Cengiz prensesiyle evlenmesi yoluyla Cengiz Han'a bağlıydı.

Babür İmparatorları Listesi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Portrait Yaygın adı Doğum Adı Doğum Hüküm Ölüm Notlar
Babür

بابر
Zahîreddîn Muhammed Bâbur

ظہیر الدین محمد
14 February 1483 Andijan, Uzbekistan 20 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 26 December 1530 (aged 47) Agra, India İmparatorluğu Kurdu
Humayün

ہمایوں
Nasireddin Muhammed Hümayun Şah

نصیر الدین محمد ہمایوں
6 Mart 1508 Kâbil 26 December 1530  – 17 May 1540

22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556

27 January 1556 (aged 47) Delhi, India Hümayun, 1540 yılında Suri hanedanından Şer Şah Suri tarafından devrildi, ancak İslam Şah Suri'nin (Şer Şah Suri'nin oğlu ve halefi) ölümünden sonra 1555'te tahta geri döndü.
Ekber Şah

اکبر اعظم
Ebü'l-Feth Celâlüddîn Muhammed Ekber Şâh

جلال الدین محمد اکبر
15 Ekim 1542 Umerkot, Pakistan 11 February 1556 – 27 October 1605 27 October 1605 (aged 63) Agra, India
Cihangir

جہانگیر
Ebü'l-Muzaffer Nûreddîn Muhammed Cihângîr b. Ekber

نور الدین محمد سلیم
31 Ağustos 1569 Agra 3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627 28 October 1627 (aged 58) Jammu and Kashmir, India His mother was Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani.[1]
Şah Cihan

شاہ جہان
Ebû’l Muzaffer Şehâbeddin Muhammed Sâhib-kıran

شہاب الدین محمد خرم
5 January 1592 Lahore, Pakistan 19 January 1628 – 31 July 1658 22 January 1666 (aged 74) Agra, India Under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its cultural glory.[2] Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is best remembered for his architectural achievements. His reign ushered in the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, in which is entombed his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Evrengzib

عالمگیر
Âlemgîr Ebü’l-Muzaffer Muhammed Muhyiddîn Evrengzib

محی الدین محمداورنگزیب
3 November 1618 Gujarat, India 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707 3 March 1707 (aged 88) Ahmednagar, India His mother was Persian Mumtaz Mahal. He was married to Safavid Dynasty Princess Dilras Banu Begum. He established Islamic law throughout India. After his death, His younger Son Azam Shah became the King (for 3 months) .[3]
Muhammad Azam Shah

محمد اعظم شاہ
Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam

قطب الدين محمد اعظم
28 June 1653 Burhanpur, India 14 March 1707 – 20 June 1707 20 June 1707 (aged 53) Agra, India He was briefly Mughal emperor, who reigned for 3 months. He was the eldest son of Aurangzeb and his chief consort Dilras Banu Begum.[4]
I. Bahadır Şah

بہادر شاہ
Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Alam

قطب الدین محمد معزام
14 October 1643 Burhanpur, India 19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712 27 February 1712 (aged 68) Lahore, Pakistan He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilised the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab.
Cihandar Şah

جہاندار شاہ
Mu'izz-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur

معز الدین جہاندار شاہ بہادر
9 Mayıs 1661 Deccan, Hindistan 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713 12 February 1713 (aged 51) Delhi, India Highly influenced by his Grand Vizier Zulfikar Khan.
Ferruhsiyer

فرخ سیر
Farrukhsiyar

فرخ سیر
20 August 1685 Aurangabad, India 11 Ocak 1713 – 28 Şubat 1719 19 Nisan 1719 (aged 33) Delhi, India Granted a firman to the East India Company in 1717 granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal, strengthening their posts on the east coast. The firman or decree helped British East India company to import goods into Bengal without paying customs duty to the government.
Refiüdderecât

رفیع الدرجات
Rafi ud-Darajat

رفیع الدرجات
1 Aralık 1699 28 February – 6 June 1719 6 June 1719 (aged 19) Agra, India Rise of Syed Brothers as power brokers.
II. Cihan Şah

شاہ جہان دوم
Rafi ud-Daulah

شاہ جہاں دوم
June 1696 6 June 1719 – 17 September 1719 18 September 1719 (aged 23) Agra, India Succeeded Rafi ud-Darajat after being chosen by the Sayyid brothers.
Muhammed Şah

محمد شاہ
Roshan Akhtar Bahadur

روشن اختر بہادر
7 Ağustos 1702 Gazne 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748 26 April 1748 (aged 45) Delhi, India Got rid of the Sayyid Brothers. Fought a long war with the Marathas, losing Deccan and Malwa in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nader Shah of Persia in 1739. He was the last emperor to possess effective control over the empire.
Ahmed Şah Bahadır

احمد شاہ بہادر
Ahmad Shah Bahadur

احمد شاہ بہادر
23 December 1725 Delhi, India 29 April 1748 – 2 June 1754 1 January 1775 (aged 49) Delhi, India Mughal forces defeated by the Marathas at the Battle of Sikandarabad.
II. Alemgir Şah

عالمگیر دوم
Aziz-ud-din

عزیز اُلدین
6 June 1699 Burhanpur, India 3 June 1754 – 29 November 1759 29 November 1759 (aged 60) Kotla Fateh Shah, India Domination of Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk.
III. Cihan Şah

شاہ جہان سوم
Muhi-ul-millat

محی اُلملت
1711 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760 1772 (aged 60–61) Consolidation of power by the Nawab of Bengal-Bihar-Odisha.
Şah Alem

شاہ عالم دوم
Ali Gauhar

علی گوہر
25 June 1728 Delhi, India 10 October 1760 – 31 July 1788 19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India Defeat in the Battle of Buxar.
IV. Şah Cihan

جہان شاه چہارم
Bidar Bakht Mahmud Shah Bahadur Jahan Shah

 بیدار بخت محمود شاه بهادر جہان شاہ 
1749 Delhi, India 31 July 1788 – 11 October 1788 1790 (aged 40–41) Delhi, India Enthroned as a puppet Emperor by the Rohilla Ghulam Kadir, following the temporary overthrow of Shah Alam II.
II.Şah Alem

شاہ عالم دوم
Ali Gauhar

علی گوہر
25 June 1728 Delhi, India 16 October 1788 – 19 November 1806 19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India Second reign.
II. Ekber Şah

اکبر شاہ دوم
Mirza Akbar

میرزا اکبر
22 Nisan 1760 Mukundpur, Hindistan 19 Nisan 1806 – 28 September 1837 28 September 1837 (aged 77) Delhi, India Titular figurehead under British protection.
II. Bahadır Şah

بہادر شاہ دوم
Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar

ابو ظفر سراج اُلدین محمد بہادر شاہ ظفر
24 Ekim 1775 Delhi, Hindistan 28 Eylül 1837 – 21 Eylül 1857 7 Nisan 1862 (aged 87) Rangoon, Myanmar Last Mughal Emperor. Deposed by the British and was exiled to Burma after the rebellion of 1857.

Not: Babür İmparatorları çok eşlilik uyguladılar. Karılarının yanı sıra haremlerinde çocuk sahibi olan çok sayıda cariyeleri de vardı. Bu, her imparatorun tüm çocuklarını tanımlamayı zorlaştırır.[5]   

Kaynaklar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

daha fazla okuma[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Pusalker, A. D.; Majumdar, A. K., (Edl.) (1973). The History and Culture of the Indian People. VII: The Mughal Empire. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.  r eksik |soyadı1= (yardım)

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ South Asia in World History. Oxford University Press. 2017. s. 79. ISBN 978-0199760343. 
  2. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India (İngilizce). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 1986. s. 59. ISBN 978-8120710153. 
  3. ^ The Foundations of the Composite Culture in India. Aakar Books. 2007. s. 300. ISBN 978-8-189-83318-3. 
  4. ^ Emperors of the peacock throne : the saga of the great Mughals. Rev. New Delhi: Penguin books. 2000. ss. 510-513. ISBN 978-0141001432. 
  5. ^ The Last Mughal. Londra: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 2006. s. 44. ISBN 978-1-4088-0092-8.