Ateizm demografisi

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İlgili makaleler
Ateizm

Atom of Atheism-Zanaq.svg

Kavramlar

Antiteizm· Ateizm ve din
Ateizmin eleştirisi
Açık ve kapalı ateizm
Negatif ve pozitif ateizm

Tarih

Ateizm tarihi· Yeni ateizm
Devlet ateizmi

Tezler

Tanrı'nın varoluşuna karşı tezler
Özgür irade paradoksu
Tutarsız vahiyler kökenli tez
İnançsızlık kökenli tez
Kötü tasarım kökenli tez
Ateistin bahsi· Öğrenmeyenin kaderi
Boşukların Tanrı'sı
Bağdaşmayan özellikler tezi
Her şeye kadirlik paradoksu
Kötülük sorunu· Oblivion
Cehennem sorunu· Russell'in çaydanlığı
Teolojik nonkognitivizm
Nihai Boeing 747 gambiti

Kişiler

Demografi
Ateistlere karşı ayrımcılık / zulüm
Dikkate değer ateistler

Ateizm portali ·

Ateistlerin nüfus dağılımının saptanması oldukça zordur. Pek çok insan "ateizm" ve onunla alakalı olan terimleri yorumlama konusunda ayrıma düşmektedir. Bunun yanında ateizm, din karşıtı inançlar ve teizm karşıtı inançlar arasında kesin bir ayrım yapmak mümkün değildir. Üstelik pek çok ateist, bulundukları toplumun sosyal baskıları yüzünden kendi kimliklerini ifade edememektedir. Sayıca çok az olmalarına rağmen ateist yönetimlerde de tam tersi bir durum söz konusu olabilmektedir.[1] Tüm bu olumsuzluklara rağmen bir araştırmaya göre dünya nüfusunun %2.5'i kendini ateist, %12.7'si ise kendisini dinsiz olarak tanımlamıştır.[2]

Avrupa[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Percentages of people in European countries who said in 2010 that they "believe there is a God"
Percentages of people in European countries with no belief in a spirit, god, or life force (Eurobarometer 2010)

Bir 2010 Eurostat Eurobarometer anketine göre, Avrupa Birliği yurttaşlarının %51'i "nir Tanrı'nın olduğuna inandıkları" şeklinde yanıt verirken, %26'sı "bir çeşit ruh ya da yaşam gücüne inandıkları" şeklinde, %20'si de "bir ruh, Tanrı ya da yaşam gücüne inanmadıkları" şeklinde yanıtladı. Sonuçlar farklı ülkeler arasında oldukça değişiklik gösterdi; with Maltalı katılımcıların %94'ü Tanrı'ya inandıklarını belirtirken, Çeklilerin yalnızca %16'sı aynısını belirtti.[3]

Eurobarometer tarafından 2012'de yapılan Avrupa Birliği'nde dinsellikle ilgili bir diğer ankete göre, %16 İnançlı olmayan/Agnostik ve %7 Ateist.[4] AB yurttaşlarının %72'si Hristiyan ve %2'si Müslüman.[5]

Pew Research Center'ın 2012 araştırmasına göre, dinsel olarak bağımsız olanların sayısı (agnostik ve ateistler de dahil) Avrupalı popülasyonun yaklaşık %18,2'sine erişmektedir.[6] Aynı araştırmaya göre, dinsel olarak bağımsızlar yalnızca iki Avrupa ülkesinde popülasyonun çoğunluğuna erişmektedir: Çek Cumhuriyeti (%75) ve Estonya (%60).[6]

Eurobarometer Poll 2010[3]
Ülke "Bir Tanrının
olduğuna inanıyorum"
"Bir çeşit ruh veya yaşam
gücünün olduğuna inanıyorum"
"Bir çeşit ruh, Tanrı veya yaşam
gücünün olduğuna inanmıyorum"
Malta Malta  %94  %4  %2
Romanya Romanya  %92  %7  %1
Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti Kıbrıs  %88  %8  %3
Yunanistan Yunanistan  %79  %16  %4
Polonya Polonya  %79  %14  %5
İtalya İtalya  %74  %20  %6
İrlanda İrlanda  %70  %20  %7
Portekiz Portekiz  %70  %15  %12
Slovakya Slovakya'da din  %63  %23  %13
İspanya İspanya  %59  %20  %19
Litvanya Litvanya  %47  %37  %12
Lüksemburg Lüksemburg  %46  %22  %24
Macaristan Macaristan  %45  %34  %20
Avusturya Avusturya  %44  %38  %12
Almanya Almanya  %44  %25  %27
Letonya Letonya  %38  %48  %11
Birleşik Krallık Birleşik Krallık  %37  %33  %25
Belçika Belçika  %37  %31  %27
Bulgaristan Bulgaristan  %36  %43  %15
Finlandiya Finlandiya  %33  %42  %22
Slovenya Slovenya  %32  %36  %26
Danimarka Danimarka  %28  %47  %24
Hollanda Hollanda  %28  %39  %30
Fransa Fransa  %27  %27  %40
Estonya Estonya  %18  %50  %29
İsveç İsveç  %18  %45  %34
Çek Cumhuriyeti Çek Cumhuriyeti  %16  %44  %37
Avrupa Birliği EU27 %51 %26 %20
Hırvatistan Hırvatistan (AB'ye 2013'te katıldı)  %69  %22  %7
İsviçre İsviçre (EFTA)  %44  %39  %11
İzlanda İzlanda (AEA, AB değil)  %31  %49  %18
Norveç Norveç (AEA, AB değil)  %22  %44  %29

Czech Republic[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In 2001, the Czech Statistical Office provided census information on the ten million people in the Czech Republic. 59% had no religion, 32.2% were religious, and 8.8% did not answer.[7] Next census in 2011, with a differently worded form,[8] provided following figures: 34.2% not religious, 20.6% religious and 45.2% no answer.[9]

France[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In France, about 12% of the population reportedly attends religious services more than once per month. In a 2003 poll 54% of those polled in France identified themselves as "faithful," 33% as atheist, 14% as agnostic, and 26% as "indifferent".[10] According to a different poll, 32% declared themselves atheists, and an additional 32% declared themselves agnostic.[11]

Germany[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

2008 map of Christian denominations in the states of Germany. Majority of population is:
  member of the Roman Catholic church
  member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD)
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with Roman Catholic the largest
  either member of the Roman Catholic church or the EKD with EKD the largest
  mainly not religious, largest Christian minority is EKD

Eastern Germany is perhaps the least religious region in the world.[12] [13] Atheism is embraced by young and old, though more so by younger Germans.[14] One study in September 2012 was unable to find a single person under 28 who believed in a god.[15] The popular explanation for this is the aggressive atheist policies of German Democratic Republic's Socialist Unity Party of Germany. However, the enforcement of atheism only existed for the first few years. After that, the state allowed churches to have a relatively high level of autonomy.[16] Also, the same high numbers of atheists don't exist in the other European countries that have a history of Soviet occupation, except for the Czech Republic and Estonia. Another explanation could be the secular movements during the Weimar Republic which were strongest in the states of Thuringia and Saxony. Also, it was the Protestant areas of the Eastern Bloc that tended to turn irreligious under Communist rule the most. The most atheist parts of the former Soviet bloc were usually once the most Protestant (East Germany, Estonia, and most of Latvia), and the Czech Republic is the only one that was once mainly Catholic (although having the largest Protestant share following the above three).

Christianity still has a presence in the rest of Germany, although there is an atheist majority in Hamburg.

Netherlands[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Şablon:Pie chart

Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century. Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries in all of Western Europe, with only 39% being religiously affiliated (31% for those aged under 35), and fewer than 5.6% visiting religious services regularly (meaning once or more per month) in 2010.[17] In a December 2014 survey by the VU University Amsterdam was concluded that there are more atheists (25%) than theists (17%) in the Netherlands. The rest of the population being agnostic (31%) or ietsist (27%).[18]

Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. KASKI (Katholiek Sociaal-Kerkelijk Insituut / Catholic Social-Ecclesiastical Institute[19]) found 23.3% to be Catholic in 2014[20] and 10.2% to be member of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2012.[21] Approximately 56.1% (51.3-61%) of the population has no religious affiliation.[22] Muslims in the country constitute 5% of the total population,[23] and 6% are adherents of other faiths (including Hinduism 0,6%, Judaism 0,1%, Buddhism 0,4%, minor Christian communities, Ethnic religions, and New religious movements).[23] The total number of members of Christian groups in the Netherlands has decreased from approximately 7,013,163 (43.22% overall population) in 2003 to 5,730,852 (34.15% overall population) in 2013.[24]

The number of Catholic parishes in the Netherlands has dropped between 2003 and 2014 from 1525 to 760.[25] Since the provinces North Brabant and Limburg are in the Netherlands historically mostly Roman Catholic, their people still use the term and some traditions as a base for their cultural identity rather than as a religious identity. The vast majority of the Catholic population in the Netherlands is now largely irreligious in practice. Research among Catholics in the Netherlands in 2007 shows that only 27% of the Dutch Catholics can be regarded as a theist, 55% as an ietsist, deist or agnostic and 17% as atheist.[26] A planned visit of Pope Francis to the Netherlands was blocked by cardinal Wim Eijk in 2014, allegedly because of the feared lack of interest for the Pope among the Dutch public.[27] Research shows that 42% of the members of the PKN are non-theist.[26] Furthermore, in the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) and several other smaller denominations of the Netherlands, 1 in 6 clergy are either agnostic or atheist.[28]

Atheism, ietsism, agnosticism and "Christian atheism" are on the rise; the first three being widely accepted and the last being more or less considered to be non-controversial. Among those who adhere to Christianity there are high percentages of atheists, agnostics and ietsists, since affiliation with a Christian denomination is also used in a way of cultural identification in the different parts of the Netherlands, especially among Catholics.[22] The Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (Social and Cultural Planning Agency, SCP) expects the number of non-affiliated Dutch to be at 72% in 2020.[29] Religion is in the Netherlands generally considered a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public.[30]

Norway[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A 2006 survey in the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten (on February 17), saw 1,006 inhabitants of Norway answering the question "What do you believe in?" 29% answered "I believe in a god or deity", 23% answered "I believe in a higher power without being certain of what", 26% answered "I don't believe in God or higher powers" and 22% answered "I am in doubt". Still, Şablon:As of, 78% of the population are members of the Norwegian state's official Lutheran Protestant church. All Norwegians with at least one parent who is a member are automatically registered as members at birth, so most members have done nothing actively to join, effectively creating an opt-out system where membership is not considered a serious statement of faith in Christianity, and one where many keep themselves enrolled for the sake of possibly wanting to have a ceremony in the church at some point in their life, without this necessarily implying belief.[31]

Russia[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

According to a surveys of Levada Center, 22% of those surveyed self-described as non-religious, agnostic or atheist, with 69% describing themselves as Orthodox and 5% as Muslims. Although 10% visit a church at least once a month, the fact that there has been a substantial increase in the Orthodox proportion of the population, along with the fact that those who identify themselves Christian are more likely to go to church, suggests that atheism and irreligion has greatly waned in Russia since the Soviet collapse.[32]

Spain[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Religions in Spain
Catholicism
  
68.8%
Non-religious
  
25.8%
Others
  
1.9%
No answer
  
3.1%
Religious affiliation in Spain in 2014, according to Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.[33]

In Spain, 70.7% are religious believers (68.8% catholic and 1.9% others), 16.4% are non-believers and 9.7% are atheists, according to the April 2014 poll of the public Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.[33]

Sweden[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Several studies have found Sweden to be one of the most atheist countries in the world. 18% of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 45% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 34% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". This, according to the survey, would make Swedes the third least religious people in the 27-member European Union, after Estonia and the Czech Republic.

Switzerland[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

According to a study carried out by doctor in political science Simon Geissbühler, Swiss atheists tend to be more left-leaning, even accounting for age and income, than the average Swiss population.[34]

United Kingdom[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A poll in 2004 by the BBC put the number of people who do not believe in a god at 39%,[35] while a YouGov poll in the same year put the percentage of non-believers at 35% with 21% answering "Don't Know".[36] In the YouGov poll men were less likely to believe in a god than women, 39% of men and 49% of women, and younger people were less likely to believe in a god than older people. In early 2004, it was announced that atheism would be taught during religious education classes in England.[37] A compilation of some sociological studies indicates that roughly 30-40% of the British population does not have a belief in a god, but only 8% self identify as convinced atheist.[38]

A YouGov poll in 2013 showed that 38% of British youth (18–24 years old) did not believe in the concept of God or a "spiritual greater power", 25% identified as believing in God, 19% believing in no god but a "spiritual greater power", and 18% of those surveyed did not know. Those surveyed also had a generally negative view of religion, with 41% of those surveyed agreeing with the statement that "religion is more often the cause of evil in the world".[39]

Kuzey Amerika[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kuzey Amerika'da kendini bir dine bağlı olarak gören insanların oranı (1991), (2001).

2004 yılında BBC'nin yapmış olduğu bir araştırma ABD halkının %10'unun Tanrı'ya inanmadığını ortaya koymuştur.[40] 2005 yılında yapılan bir kamuoyu araştırması ABD halkının %5'inin Tanrı'nın var olduğuna inanmadığını gösterdi.[41] 2001 yılındaki ARIS araştırmasına göre 29.5 milyon ABD vatandaşı (%14.1) kendisini "dinsiz" olarak tanımlarken sadece 902,000 kişi (%0.4) kendisini tam anlamıyla ateist gördüğünü, 991,000 kişi ise (%0.5) agnostik olarak gördüğünü ifade etti.[42] ARIS'in son araştırmasına göre ise bu oranlar yaklaşık iki katına çıkmış durumda. 9 Mayıs 2009 tarihli araştırmaya göre 34.2 milyon kişi (%15) kendisini "dinsiz" tanımlarken %1.6'lık kesim kendsini ateist veya agnostik olarak görüyor.[43]

Ateizm, Kanada'da ABD'dan daha yaygın. ABD'de %2'ye varamayan agnostikler ve ateistler, Kanada'da %19-30 arasındadır.[44] 2001 yılında yapılan nüfus sayımına göre Kanada'nın %16.2'sinin dini inancı bulunmamaktadır. Ateizm ile ilgili ise net bir bilgi mevcut değil.[45] Şehir merkezlerinde bu oranın arttığını görüyoruz. 2001 yılı sayımına göre herhangi bir dine inancı olmayanların oranı Vancouver şehrinde %42.2'dir.[45]

2008 yılındaki araştırmaya göre Kanadalıların %23'ü herhangi bir tanrıya inanmamaktadır.[46]

Meksika Meclisi'nin din ve devlet işlerinin birbirinden ayrılması, halkının ağırlık olarak Katolik (%89) olmasına rağmen karara bağlandı.[47]

Son araştırmalar da gösteriyor ki ateizm ABD'nin tüm eyaletlerinde artmaktadır.[48]

Asya[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

İsrail'de, etnik olarak yahudi olanların %50'si, bir kısmı geleneklerine hala bağlı olmasına rağmen kendisini laik olarak tanımlıyor. Ateistlerin ve agnostiklerin oranı ise %15 ila %37 arasında seyrediyor.[49]

Avustralya[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Avustralya'da yapılan 2006 nüfus sayımına göre halkın %18.7'si "hiçbir din" seçeneğini işaretledi. Bu oran %3.2'ye göre 2001 nüfus sayımından oldukça yüksekti. Soruya cevap vermeyenlerin oranı ise %11.2'yi buldu.[50]

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ Todd, Douglas China's stress on "harmony" keeps tight lid on religion Vancouver Sun blog. http://communities.canada.com/vancouversun/blogs/thesearch/archive/2008/08/23/china-s-stress-on-harmony-keeps-tight-lid-on-religion.aspx
  2. ^ Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents
  3. ^ a b "Special Eurobarometer: Biotechnology" (PDF). Ekim 2010. ss. 381. 3 Mart 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160303213435/http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf. 
  4. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012", Special Eurobarometer, 383 (European Union: European Commission): ss. 233, 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf, erişim tarihi: 14 August 2013  Sorulan soru "Kendinizi ne olarak ifade ediyorsunuz?" Bir kart gösteriyor: Katolik, Ortodoks, Protestan, Diğer Hristiyan, Yahudi, Müslüman, Sih, Budist, Hindu, Ateist ve İnançsız/Agnostik. Diğer veya Bilmiyor için boşluk verildi. Yahudi, Sih, Budist, Hindu %1 eşiğine erişmedi.
  5. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012", Special Eurobarometer, 383 (European Union: European Commission): ss. 233, 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf, erişim tarihi: 14 August 2013 
  6. ^ a b "Religiously Unaffiliated". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 Aralık 2012. 30 Temmuz 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20130730043126/http://www.pewforum.org:80/global-religious-landscape-unaffiliated.aspx. Erişim tarihi: 14 Şubat 2015. 
  7. ^ "Obyvatelstvo podle náboženského vyznání a pohlaví podle výsledků sčítání lidu v letech 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 a 2001". http://czso.cz/csu/2006edicniplan.nsf/t/3D00462B10/$File/4032060119.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 2007-02-23. 
  8. ^ [1] Form template for 2011 National census, Czech Statistical Office
  9. ^ "Obyvatelstvo podle náboženské víry podle krajů". http://vdb.czso.cz/sldbvo/#!stranka=podle-tematu&tu=30562&th=&v=&vo=H4sIAAAAAAAAAFvzloG1uIhBMCuxLFGvtCQzR88jsTjDN7GAlf3WwcNiCReZGZjcGLhy8hNT3BKTS_KLPBk4SzKKUosz8nNSKgrsHRhAgKecA0gKADF3CQNnaLBrUIBjkKNvcSFDHQMDhhqGCqCiYA__cLCiEgZGvxIGdg9_Fz__EMeCEgY2b38XZ89gIIvLxTHEP8wx2NEFJM4ZHOIY5u_t7-MJ1OIP5IdEBkT5OwU5RgH5IUB9fo4ePq4uEPNYw1yDolzhPstJzEvX88wrSU1PLRJ6tGDJ98Z2CyYGRk8G1rLEnNLUiiIGAYQ6v9LcpNSitjVTZbmnPOhmArq34D8QlDDwAG10C_KFWcoe4ugU6uPtWMLA4eni6hcSEAZ0FXtAmHOQgblRBQBh5PVIWgEAAA..&vseuzemi=null&void=. Erişim tarihi: 2013-03-18. 
  10. ^ U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35454.htm. Erişim tarihi: 2006-03-05. 
  11. ^ "Religious Views and Beliefs Vary Greatly by Country, According to the Latest Financial Times/Harris Poll". Financial Times/Harris Interactive. 2006-12-20. 23 Temmuz 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20130723125147/http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131. Erişim tarihi: 2007-01-17. 
  12. ^ "WHY EASTERN GERMANY IS THE MOST GODLESS PLACE ON EARTH". Die Welt. 2012. 4 Mart 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160304113355/http://www.worldcrunch.com/why-eastern-germany-most-godless-place-planet/culture-society/why-eastern-germany-is-the-most-godless-place-on-earth/c3s5177/. Erişim tarihi: 2009-05-24. 
  13. ^ "East Germany the "most atheistic" of any region". Dialog International. 2012. 12 Mart 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160312000843/http://www.dialoginternational.com/dialog_international/2012/05/east-germany-the-most-atheistic-of-any-region.html. Erişim tarihi: 2009-05-24. 
  14. ^ "Only the Old Embrace God in Former East Germany". Spiegel Online. 2012. 26 Mart 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160326041543/http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/report-shows-highest-percentage-of-atheists-in-former-east-germany-a-828526.html. Erişim tarihi: 2009-05-24. 
  15. ^ Thompson, Peter (2012-09-22). "East German atheism can be seen as a form of continuing political and regional identification – and a taste of the future.". London: guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2012/sep/22/atheism-east-germany-godless-place. Erişim tarihi: 2012-09-24. 
  16. ^ "Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth". theguardian. 2012. 4 Mart 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160304113355/http://www.worldcrunch.com/why-eastern-germany-most-godless-place-planet/culture-society/why-eastern-germany-is-the-most-godless-place-on-earth/c3s5177/. Erişim tarihi: 2009-05-24. 
  17. ^ Geloven in het publieke domein, verkenningen van een dubbele transformatie, WRR, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam
  18. ^ Kaynak hatası: Geçersiz <ref> etiketi; trouw.nl isimli refler için metin temin edilmemiş (Bkz: Kaynak gösterme)
  19. ^ http://www.ru.nl/kaski/
  20. ^ KASKI-Report 636 ), retrieved 9 Jan 2015
  21. ^ Kaski, Kerncijfers van de kerkgenootschappen die deelnemen aan de actie 'Kerkbalans 2014', http://www.ru.nl/kaski/onderzoek/cijfers-overige/virtuele_map/kerncijfers-2012/, retrieved 9 Jan 2015.
  22. ^ a b H. Knippenberg, "The Changing Religious Landscape of Europe", Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam 2005 ISBN 90-5589-248-3
  23. ^ a b Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek: De religieuze kaart van Nederland, 2010-2013.
  24. ^ http://www.ru.nl/kaski/onderzoek/onderzoeksvormen/
  25. ^ "Kerkgebouwen en parochies". KASKI. 2 Nisan 2016 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20160402112810/http://www.ru.nl/kaski/onderzoek/cijfers-rooms/virtuele_map/kerkgebouwen_en/. Erişim tarihi: 21 April 2015. 
  26. ^ a b God in Nederland' (1996-2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, ISBN 9789025957407
  27. ^ http://www.trouw.nl/tr/nl/4492/Nederland/article/detail/3587802/2014/02/01/Kardinaal-Eijk-blokkeert-bezoek-paus-Franciscus.dhtml
  28. ^ Pigott, Robert (5 August 2011). "Dutch rethink Christianity for a doubtful world". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14417362. Erişim tarihi: 2 October 2011. 
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