Åbo Antlaşması

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Åbo Antlaşması veya Turku Antlaşması, Rus İmparatorluğu ile İsveç arasında Turku'da imzalanan bir barış antlaşmasıydı (İsveççeÅbo) 7. ağustos jül / 18. Ağustos greg. 1741-1743 Rus-İsveç. Savaşın sonunda, Rus İmparatorluk Ordusu Finlandiya'nın çoğunu işgal etti ve Mareşal Trubetskoy ve Şansölye Aleksey Bestuzhev'in bu durumda uti possidetis ilkesinin uygulanmasını talep etmesine yol açtı.[1] Rus politikacılar Finlandiya'yı alarak İsveç sınırını önemli ölçüde kuzeye kaydırmayı ve böylece İsveç'in Rusya'nın başkenti Saint Petersburg'a saldırma tehlikesini azaltmayı[2] amaçladılar. Finlandiya mülkleri, bağımsızlık kazanma umuduyla, ülkelerinin geçici tahtını Rus tahtının varisi olan Holsten-Gottorp Dükü Peter'a teklif etti. [3] [4] Ortaya çıkan anlaşmaya göre İsveç, Kymi Nehri'nin doğusundaki Olavinlinna kalesi ile Lappeenranta ve Hamina kasabalarını Rusya'ya bıraktı. XII. Karl'ın halefi, kız kardeşi Ulrike Eleonore (1718-1720) ve bir müddet sonra tahtını bıraktığı kocası I. Friedrich devri (1720-1751), Rusya'ya karşı verilen büyük savaş ve uğranılan yenilginin bir neticesi olarak asiller meclisinin üstünlüğü ele geçirdiği, parlamentoya (Riksdag) dayalı bir idarenin yerleştiği özgürlük devri olarak nitelenmekle beraber partiler arasındaki çekişmeler İsveç'in zafiyetini telâfi etmekten uzak kaldı. 1741-1743 yıllarındaki yeni bir Rus savaşı, 1740'ta Osmanlı Devleti ile yapılan ittifakın katkısı olmadan devam etti ve Finlandiya'nın elden çıkması, İsveç'in de biraz daha zayıflaması ile sonuçlandı (Åbo Antlaşması. III. Gustav zamanında (1771-1792) birbirleriyle çekişme halinde olan partilerin yönetimdeki etkin konumuna son verildi.[1] Danimarka ve Rusya'ya karşı yeni savaşlara girişildi. Rusya ile olan mücadele bir Osmanlı-İsveç ittifakı gerçekleştirilmiş olarak (1789) sürdürüldüyse de istenilen başarıya erişemedi.[5]

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ a b Elgán, Elisabeth (2015). Historical dictionary of Sweden (3. bas.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1442250703. 
  2. ^ Scott, Hamish (2015). The Oxford handbook of early modern European history, 1350-1750. Volume 1, Peoples and place (1. bas.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198820567. 
  3. ^ "Aleksej Petrovitj Bestuzhev". Nordisk familjebok. 5 Haziran 2013 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 1 Haziran 2019. 
  4. ^ "Peter III., Russland, Zar". Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek. 29 Haziran 2019 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. Erişim tarihi: 1 Haziran 2019. 
  5. ^ Saunders, Robert A. (2019). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation (2. bas.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1538120477. 

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