Millî spor

Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Atla: kullan, ara

Millî spor, bir milletin kültürünün parçası olarak kabul edilen sporlar için kullanılan terimdir. ABD'de oynanan beyzbol gibi bazı sporlar de facto millî sporlar kabul edilirken, Kanada'da oynanan lakros ve buz hokeyi gibi sporlar de jure millî sporlardandır.

De jure millî sporlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Ülke Spor Millî spor olarak
tanımlandığı yıl
Arjantin Pato 1953[1]
Bahamalar Yelkenli yarışı 1993[2]
Bangladeş ("millî oyun") Kabaddi 1972[3]
Brezilya Capoeira 1972[4]
Filipinler Arnis 2009[5]
Güney Kore Taekwondo 1971[6]
Kanada Lakros, buz hokeyi 1994[7]
Kolombiya Tejo 2000[8]
Meksika Charreada 1933[9]
Porto Riko ("yerli sporu") Paso Fino 1966[10]
Sri Lanka Voleybol 1991[11]
Şili Şili rodeosu 1962[12]
Uruguay Destrezas criollas 2006[13]

De facto millî sporlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Ülke Spor
Afganistan Buzkaşi[14]
ABD Beyzbol[15][16]
Anguilla Yat yarışı[17]
Antigua ve Barbuda Kriket[18]
Barbados Kriket[19]
Bermuda Kriket[20]
Bhutan Okçuluk[21]
Çin (ÇHC) Masa tenisi[22]
Dominik Cumhuriyeti Beyzbol[23]
Finlandiya Pesäpallo[24]
Galler Ragbi birliği[25]
Grenada Kriket[26]
Guyana Kriket[27]
Hindistan Çim hokeyi[28][29]
İngiltere Kriket[30]
İskoçya Golf[31]
İrlanda Gal oyunları[32][33][34]
Jamaika Kriket[35]
Küba Beyzbol[36][37][38]
Letonya (yaz sporu) Basketbol[39]
Letonya (kış sport) Buz hokeyi[39]
Litvanya Basketbol[40]
Norveç Kayaklı koşu[41][42]
Pakistan Çim hokeyi[43]
Papua Yeni Gine Ragbi ligi[44][45]
Peru Paleta Frontón[46]
Slovenya Alp disiplini[47][47]
Tayland Muay Thai[48]
Türkiye ("ata sporları") Yağlı güreş,[49] cirit[50][51]
Yeni Zelanda Ragbi birliği[52]

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ "Argentina Decree Nº 17468 of 16 September 1953". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=111271. Erişim tarihi: 14 Şubat 2011. 
  2. ^ Michael Craton; Gail Saunders (1998). Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. University of Georgia Press. ss. sf. 471. ISBN 0820322849. 
  3. ^ "Virtual Bangladesh : Sports : Kabaddi". Virtual Bangladesh. 17 Ağustos 2006. http://www.virtualbangladesh.com/sports/kabaddi.html. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  4. ^ John Lowell (1992). Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira. University of Chicago Press. ss. sf. 61. ISBN 0226476839. 
  5. ^ "Republic Act No. 9850: An Act declaring Arnis as the national martial art and sport of the Philippines". http://www.filipiniana.net/ArtifactView.do?artifactID=L20100000001&query=null&page=1. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  6. ^ "History of Tae Kwon Do". North American Tae Kwon Do Schools. http://www.natkd-cdk.com/history_tkd_formation.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  7. ^ National Sports Act of Canada (1994)
  8. ^ "Colombia Law 613 of 4 September 2000". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=73716. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  9. ^ "La Charrería "Nuestro Deporte Nacional"" (İspanyolca). Meksika Turizm Departmanlığı. http://www.sectur.gob.mx/wb2/sectur/sect_Celebracion_del_Dia_Mundial_del_Turismo. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "El año de 1933 fue muy importante, ya que el general Abelardo L. Rodríguez, emite un decreto presidencial, dando a la Charrería el título de único Deporte Nacional." 
  10. ^ "Puerto Rico Act 64 of 2000, S.B. 1856" (PDF). Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico. 11 Nisan 2000. http://www.oslpr.org/download/en/2000/0064.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "In 1966, the Public Parks and Recreation Administration and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee awarded official recognition of the “paso fino” horse riding sport as the autochthonous sport of Puerto Rico." 
  11. ^ Leslie Fernando (3 Haziran 2005). "Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB". Daily News (Sri Lanka). http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/06/03/spo01.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Way back in 1991 volleyball was declared as the national sport of Sri Lanka but it was only name sake." 
  12. ^ Alberto Moreira Recchione (Aralık 2007 (17. sayı)). "La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile" (İspanyolca). Revista de urbanismo. Şili Üniversitesi. http://revistaurbanismo.uchile.cl/CDA/urb_completa/0,1313,ISID%253D728%2526IDG%253D1%2526ACT%253D1%2526PRT%253D20871,00.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "A reconocerse, en 1962, el rodeo como deporte nacional y oficial [10 de enero de 1962, oficio N°269 del Consejo Nacional de Deportes y Comité Olímpico de Chile]" 
  13. ^ "Uruguay Law 17958 of 21 April 2006". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=177996. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  14. ^ "Buzkashi: the national game of Afghanist [sic"]. Afganistan Büyükelçiliği, Canberra. http://www.afghanembassy.net/buz.php. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  15. ^ Jerold J. Duquette (1999). Regulating the National Pastime: Baseball and Antitrust. Greenwood. ss. sf. 104. ISBN 027596535X. http://books.google.com/?id=uGiD4LrT6coC&pg=PA104&vq=pastime&dq=national+pastime. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Baseball justified its privileged legal status by citing the special nature and cultural significance of America's national pastime." 
  16. ^ Myles Schrag (2003). "Baseball as National Pastime Revisted: And a Little Town Shall Lead Them". Peter Carino. Baseball/literature/culture: Essays, 1995-2001. McFarland. ss. Böl. 13 sf. 140. ISBN 0786416432. http://books.google.com/books?id=e6RfXqIcY3kC&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=%22known+as+the+national+pastime%22&source=web&ots=YxBQqRmkgf&sig=IRgII2ZMuuM-dIFjGAo6aZau2vQ&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA140,M1. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Tradition — that quality so instrumental in elevating baseball to its century-old status as national pastime— has become less important" 
  17. ^ "Boat Racing Season Officially Opens". The Anguillian. 3 Mart 2007. http://www.festival.ai/article/articleview/4525/1/127/. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Director of Sports, Alkins Rogers, [...] reported that the Government recognizes boat racing as the national sport of Anguilla and was giving financial resources for its development." 
  18. ^ "Antiguans and Barbudans". everyculture.com. http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Afghanistan-to-Bosnia-Herzegovina/Antiguans-and-Barbudans.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Cricket, a left-over from the British rule, is the national sport of Antigua and Barbuda." 
  19. ^ "Barbados: Sports". Government of Barbados. http://www.barbados.gov.bb/sports.htm. Erişim tarihi: 2008-07-21. "The national sport of Barbados is cricket" 
  20. ^ Will Luke (Mart 2007). "Cricket by association". The Wisden Cricketer. http://content-www.cricinfo.com/wisdencricketer/content/story/281649.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Bermuda are one of the few sides who count cricket as a national sport." 
  21. ^ "National Symbols". Bhutan Hükümeti. http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/government/abt_nationalsymbols.php. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "National Game: The national sport of Bhutan is archery." 
  22. ^ Terhi Mikkolainen (18 Şubat 2009). "Pīngpāng qiú – China's national sport". Radio86.com. http://en.radio86.com/health-and-sports/sports/p-ngp-ng-qi-chinas-national-sport. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  23. ^ "Some facts about the Dominican Republic". Dominik Cumhuriyeti Büyükelçiliği, Washington. http://www.domrep.org/kids.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Baseball is the Dominican Republic’s national sport." 
  24. ^ "Sports". Finlandiya Büyükelçiliği, Washington. 11 Haziran 2007. http://www.finland.org/public/default.aspx?nodeid=38923&contentlan=2&culture=en-US. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "the national sport, “pesäpallo”" 
  25. ^ John Harris (Yaz 2006 (2. sayı)). "(Re)Presenting Wales: National Identity and Celebrity in the Postmodern Rugby World". North American Association for the Study of Welsh Culture and History. http://spruce.flint.umich.edu/~ellisjs/Harris.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "rugby used to be the undisputed national sport of Wales [...] Rugby Union’s assumed position as ”the national game” has often been questioned on the basis that it is predominantly a game played and followed in South Wales." 
  26. ^ "Batting For Grenada". Grenada Life. Grenada Turizm sayfası. Mart 2007. ss. sf. 38. http://azzurracastlegrenada.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=69. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "in the first Grenada Cricket Classics [, h]eroes such as Sir Viv Richards, Joel Garner and Curtley Ambrose came together to promote what is considered by many to be the national sport in Grenada." 
  27. ^ "Games". Guyana Turizm Otoritesi. 6 Haziran 2008 tarihinde özgün kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20080606075705/http://guyana-tourism.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=96&Itemid=178. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Cricket lovely Cricket! One cannot miss out on Guyana’s national sport without participating in a game of cricket while in Guyana." 
  28. ^ Basra Sukhwant (11 Mart 2008). "No National status, except in NCERT textbooks". dnaindia. http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?newsid=1155419. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "The status of hockey as the national sport is not enshrined in any official proclamation by the Government of India. The NCERT textbook for Class XI does [...] state that India’s national game is hockey and that, in a way, does make for an official take on the issue." 
  29. ^ "National Game". Hindistan Hükümeti. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_game.php. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  30. ^ "Cricket losing status as national sport". Telegraph. 9 Nisan 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/5132934/Cricket-losing-status-as-national-sport.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  31. ^ "Alex Salmond quote". Sport Scotland. 31 Ağustos 2009. http://www.sportscotland.org.uk/ChannelNavigation/News/TopicNavigation/Other+press+releases/articles/First+Minister+celebrates+Scotlands+golf+world+champions+as+new+figures+show+big+increase+in+youngst.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  32. ^ "RTÉ Secures Comprehensive GAA Championship Coverage Until 2010". RTÉ Online. 19 Şubat 2008. http://www.rte.ie/about/pressreleases/2008/0219/gaachampionship2010.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Today's announcement ensures that the public will enjoy quality coverage of our national games across all of RTÉ's media platforms." 
  33. ^ "Adjournment Matters. - Eurathlon Programme.". Seanad Éireann. 22 Kasım 1995. ss. 145. bölüm. http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0145/S.0145.199511220006.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  34. ^ Hugh Farrelly (15 Eylül 2009). "The most progressive team in Ireland". Scrum.com. http://www.scrum.com/scrum/rugby/story/102547.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "It's [the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final] a big deal in Ireland, where Gaelic games are the national sport, but the problem for the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is that no-one outside the country, save for committed expatriates, gives a fig." 
  35. ^ "History of Jamaica". Jamaika Büyükelçiliği, Washington. http://www.embassyofjamaica.org/ABOUThistory.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "The legacy of Britain also lives on in Jamaica in many ways [...] the game of cricket is the national sport." 
  36. ^ Roberto Gonzalez Echevarria (1999). The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball. Oxford University Press. ss. sf. 76. ISBN 0195146050. "Baseball is so ingrained in Cuba that it has thrived as the "national sport" through forty years of a bitterly anti-American revolution." 
  37. ^ Jr James C. Mckinley (26 Mart 1999). "Baseball; Clash of Cultures, Pride and Passion". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9501E4DE1530F935A15750C0A96F958260. Erişim tarihi: 24 Temmuz 2008. "Most Cubans, after all, consider baseball to be their national sport, a game entwined in history with their struggle for independence from Spain and the birth of their nation." 
  38. ^ Fidel Castro (13 Ağustos 1999). "Speech at a meeting with Pan American Games delegation members". cuba.cu. http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1999/ing/f130899i.html. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "the game that [...] is [...] our national sport [...] I am talking of baseball" 
  39. ^ a b "Nacionālie sporta veidi..." (Letonca). http://www.nra.lv/zinas/27398-nacionalie-sporta-veidi.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  40. ^ Valdas Adamkus (28 Temmuz 2005). "Address at Charles University, Prague". Litvanya Devlet Başkanı resmî sitesi. http://www.president.lt/en/news.full/5829. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Lithuania is a country that loves basketball. It is our national sport and we are proud to be reigning European Champions." 
  41. ^ Odd Mølster (1996). "Skiing and the Creation of a Norwegian Identity - part 2". News of Norway, issue 2. Norveç Büyükelçiliği, Washington. http://www.norway.org/News/archive/1996/199602ski.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "the national sport could become a fine weapon in time of war. In 1943, Norway's resistance movement won an epochal victory — on skis, of course" 
  42. ^ Nina Berglund (20 Şubat 2006). "Few cheers for Norway". Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/english/sports/article1228843.ece. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "The scoreboard shows how the Norwegians placed, a performance considered much too poor in a country where cross-country skiing is a national sport." 
  43. ^ Moiz Khan (6 Mart 2008). "The worrying decline of hockey in Pakistan". Sportingo. http://www.sportingo.com/field-hockey/a7305_worrying-decline-hockey-pakistan. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  44. ^ "PNG vow to upset World Cup odds". Rugby League. Federación Peruana de Frontón. 15 Ekim 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_league/7671217.stm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea - the only country to have rugby league as its national sport - were to qualify for the last four." 
  45. ^ "PNG seal 2010 Four Nations place". BBC. 1 Kasım 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_league/8336567.stm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  46. ^ "Paleta-Frontón". Club Regatas Lima. 31 Ağustos 2009. http://www.clubregatas.org.pe/historia/Paleta.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  47. ^ a b http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1754-9469.2007.tb00118.x/abstract
  48. ^ "Sport in Thailand". khaosanroad. 25 Ekim 2010. http://www.khaosanroad.com/thailand_tips/sport_in_thailand.htm. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. 
  49. ^ "Her şey ata sporu güreşi yaşatmak uğruna". haber7.com. http://www.haber7.com/haber/20090617/Her-sey-ata-sporu-guresi-yasatmak-ugruna.php. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  50. ^ "Ata sporu cirit can çekişiyor". Sporx. 18 Şubat 2008. http://www.sporx.com/digersporlar/cirit/ata-sporu-cirit-can-cekisiyorSXHBQ99529SXQ. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  51. ^ "Ata sporu cirit desteklenecek!..". Erzurum Ajans. 3 Kasım 2010. http://www.erzurumajans.com/haber_detay.asp?haberID=6555. Erişim tarihi: 20 Şubat 2011. 
  52. ^ "Sport, Fitness and Leisure". New Zealand Official Yearbook. Statistics New Zealand. 2000. http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/0/479c4ffcbb884149cc256b1f00001198?OpenDocument. Erişim tarihi: 19 Şubat 2011. "Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics."