Kronik obstrüktif akciğer hastalığı

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Kronik obstrüktif akciğer hastalığı
Sınıflandırma ve dış kaynaklar
Centrilobular emphysema 865 lores.jpg

Sigara içme durumunda tipik olarak görülen santrilobüler tip amfizemde, akciğerin gros patolojisi. Bu kesilmiş fiksajın yakından görünümünde, boşluklara dolmuş yoğun noktasal siyah karbon tortuları görülmektedir.
Hastalık Veri Tabanı 2672
MedlinePlus 000091
eMedicine med/373
emerg/99
OMIM 606963
MeSH C08.381.495.389

Kronik obstrüktif akciğer hastalığı (KOAH), zayıf hava akışının görüldüğü obstrüktif bir akciğer hastalığıdır. Tipik olarak zamanla daha kötüleşir. Ana belirtileri nefes darlığı, öksürme ve balgam üretimidir.[1] Kronik bronşit sahibi insanların çoğu aynı zamanda KOAH hastasıdır.[2]

Tütün içiciliği hastalığın en temel nedeni olup hava kirliliği ve genetik gibi daha az etkili nedenleri de vardır.[3] Gelişmekte olan ülkelerde, hava kirliliğinin en etkili nedenlerinden biri doğru havalandırılmamış yemek pişirme ve ısıtma ateşi dumanıdır. Bu tahriş edici şeylere uzun süreli maruz kalmalar, akciğerlerde iltihaplanmaya neden olarak küçük hava yollarının daralmasına ve amfizem adı verilen doku parçalanmasına yol açar.[4] Teşhis, zayıf hava akışını kontrol eden akciğer fonksiyon testleri ile anlaşılır.[5] Astımdan farklı olarak, KOAH hastalarında hava akışı herhangi bir ilaç yardımıyla belirgin bir şekilde düzelemez.

KOAH, bilinen nedenlere maruz kalınımı düşürerek önlenebilir. Bunlar arasında sigara içme oranlarını azaltmak ve iç/dış hava kalitesini yükseltmek gösterilebilir. KOAH tedavileri sigarayı bırakma, aşılar, rehabilitasyon, sıkça içe çekilen bronkodilatörler ve steroitler içerir. Bazı insanlar, uzun süreli oksijen terapisi veya akciğer nakliyle belirgin iyileşmeler gösterebilir.[4] Akut kötüleşme periyotları gösteren hastalarda, artan oranlarda ilaç ve hastane altında gözetim gerekebilir.

Dünya çapında KOAH, 329 milyon insanı (dünya nüfusunun %5'i) etkilemektedir. 2012'de 3 milyon insanın ölümüne sebebiyet vererek, dünyadaki en ölümcül üçüncü hastalık olarak tanımlandı.[6] Ölümlerin, yükselen sigara kullanımı ve bazı ülkelerdeki yaşlanan nüfus nedeniyle daha da artacağı öngörülmektedir.[7] 2010'da hastalığın 2.1 trilyon dolarlık bir ekonomik zarara yol açtığı tahmin edildi.[8]

Şablon:TOC limit

Belirtiler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

KOAH'ın en belirgin belirtisi balgam üretimi, nefes darlığı ve sık öksürmelerdir.[9] Bu belirtiler, uzun sürelere yayılmış bir şekilde görülür[2] ve tipik olarak zamanla kötüleşir.[4] KOAH'ın farklı tiplerinin olup olmadığı kesinleştirilmiş değildir.[3] Önceden amfizem ve kronik bronşit olarak ayrılan hastalıkta, amfizem aslında bir hastalıktan ziyade akciğerdeki değişimleri belirtmek adına kullanılır. Kronik bronşit ise, KOAH hastalığına eşlik edip etmeyeceği kesin olmayan, sadece bazı belirtileri açıklayan bir terimdir.[1]

Öksürme[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kronik öksürmeler gözlenebilen ilk belirtilerdir. İki yıldan uzun bir sürede, yılda üç aydan fazla süren ve balgam üretiminin eşlik ettiği durum, fazladan herhangi bir açıklama yapılmadığı sürece kronik bronşit tanımına dahil olur. Bu durum, KOAH tamamen başlamadan önce de görülebilir. Üretilen balgam miktarı, saatler veya günler arasında farklılık gösterebilir. Bazı durumlarda, öksürük görülmeyebilir ve sıklıkla gözlenmeyen bir biçimde rastlanılabilir. Bazı insanlar bu belirtileri sigaraya atfederler. Balgam, toplumsal ve kültürel koşullara göre yutulup tükürülebilir. Kuvvetli öksürmeler kaburga kırılması veya kısa süreli bilinç kaybına sebebiyet verebilir. KOAH tanısı konulan insanların genelde uzun süren "nezle" geçmişleri vardır.[9]

Nefes kesilmesi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Nefes darlığı hastaların en çok şikayet ettiği belirtidir.[10] Bu durum sıklıkla şöyle tanımlanır: "zorlukla nefes alıyorum", "nefesim kesiliyor" veya "yeterince hava alamıyorum".[11] Ancak farklı terimler farklı kültürlerde kullanılabilir.[9] Tipik olarak nefes darlığı, uzun süreli güç harcama durumlarında daha kötü bir hal alır ve zamanla kötüleşir.[9] İleri vakalarda dinlenme sırasında da gözlenebilir ve sürekli gözlenebilir.[12][13] Bu durum, KOAH hastalarının endişe duyduğu ve hayat kalitesini düşüren en başlıca belirtidir.[9] Daha ileri düzey KOAH hastaları büzülmüş dudaklarından nefes alır ve bu bazı durumlarda nefes darlığını iyileştirebilir.[14][15]

Diğer belirtiler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

KOAH hastalarında nefes vermek nefes almaktan uzun sürebilir[16] Göğüs sıkışması görülebilir[9] ancak çok yaygın değildir ve başka bir durumdan dolayı kaynaklanabilir.[10] Nefes yolları engellenmiş hastalar hırıldayabilir veya nefes alırken stetoskoba daha az ses verebilir.[16] Fıçı göğüs de KOAH hastalığının karakteristik belirtisidir ancak görece daha az rastlanır.[16] Tripod pozisyonu hastalık kötüleştikçe gözlenebilir.[2]

İleri düzey KOAH, akciğer arterlerinde yüksek basınca neden olabilir ve bu nedenle kalbin sağ karıncığına baskı uygulayabilir.[4][17][18] Cor pulmonale olarak adlandırılan bu durum, bacak şişmesine [9] ve şişen boyun damarına neden olabilir.[4] KOAH, diğer bütün akciğer hastalıklarından daha büyük bir cor pulmonale tetikleyicisidir.[17] Ancak, cor pulmonale, oksijen tedavisinin kullanımından beri daha az yaygındır.[2]

KOAH, daha çok paylaşılan risk faktörleri nedeniyle, diğer bazı durumlarla beraber gerçekleşir.[3] Bunlar arasında koroner arter hastalığı, yüksek kan basıncı, diyabet, kas yıkımı, osteoporoz, akciğer kanseri, anksiyete bozukluğu ve depresyon yer alır.[3] Ciddi hastalıkları olan insanlarda hâlsizlik yaygın görülür.[9] Çomak parmak, KOAH'ya özgü değildir ve altta yatan bir akciğer kanseri için araştırmaları tetiklemelidir.[19]

Alevlenme[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Akut alevlenme, KOAH hastası bireylerde görülen, artan nefes kesilmeleri, artan balgam üretimi, balgamın temizden yeşil/sarı renge dönmesi, öksürüklerin artması olarak tanımlanabilir.[16] Bu durum, yükselen soluk almanın bulgularına da eşlik edebilir: hızlı nefes alma, yüksek kalp hızı, terleme, etkin solunum kası kullanımı, derinin mavileşmesi, konfüzyon veya ciddi alevlenmelerde görülen hırçın davranışlar.[16][20] Stetoskopla yapılan incelemelerde akciğer üstünden ral duyulabilir.[21]

Nedenleri[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

KOAH'ın en temel nedeni tütün kullanımıdır. Bunun yanında, bazı ülkelerde mesleki nedenlerle beliren maruz kalmalar ve hava kirliliği de sebep olarak gösterilmektedir.[1] Tipik olarak bu semptomların oluşabilmesi için, maruz kalmanın birkaç on-yıl öncesinde olmuş olması gerekir.[1] İnsanların genetik yatkınlığı da hastalığa katkıda bulunabilir.[1]

Tütün kullanımı[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

1990'lar sonu ve 2000'ler başında tütün kullanan kadınların yüzdesi
1990'lar sonu ve 2000'ler başında tütün kullanan erkeklerin yüzdesi. Kadınlar ve erkekler için kullanılan ölçeğin farklı olduğuna dikkat ediniz.[22]

Küresel olarak KOAH'ın bir numaralı risk faktörü tütün kullanımıdır.[1] Tütün kullanan insanların %20'si KOAH hastalığına yakalanır.[23] Ancak hayat boyu tütün kullananlar için bu oran %50'lere yükselir.[24] ABD ve Birleşik Krallık'ta, KOAH hastalarının %80-95 kadarı ya tütün kullanıcısıdır ya da hayatlarının bir kısmında tütün kullanmıştır.[23][25][26] Hastalığa yakalanma riski toplam tütün kullanım süresiyle doğru orantılı olarak artmaktadır.[27] Ek olarak, kadınlar erkeklere oranla tütünün zararlarına karşı daha büyük hassasiyet gösterirler.[26] Tütün kullanmayanlarlarda pasif içiciler durumların %20'sini oluştururlar.[25] Marijuana, puro, nargile gibi diğer benzer kullanımlar da risk barındırır.[1] Hamilelik sırasında tütün kullanan kadınlar çocuklarındaki KOAH riskini arttırabilirler.[1]

Hava kirliliği[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kömür veya odun ve tezek gibi biyoyakıtlarla yakılan pişirme ateşleri kötü havalandırıldığında mahal havası kalitesini düşürür. Bu durum gelişmekte olan ülkelerde KOAH'ın en temel sebeplerinden biridir.[28] Bu tip ateşler, neredeyse 3 milyar insan için pişirme ve ısınma kaynağı olup maruz kalma oranları daha yüksek olduğu için özellikle kadınlar için risk oluşturur.[1][28] Bu kullanım, Hindistan, Çin ve Sahraaltı Afrika'daki evlerin %80'inin enerji kaynağıdır.[29]

Şehirlerde yaşayan insanların, kırsal alanlarda yaşayan insanlara oranla KOAH'a yakalanma oranı daha yüksektir.[30] Kentsel hava kirliliği alevlenmeler için katkı sağlayan bir faktör olup hastalığa neden olmadaki rolü kesinlik kazanmamıştır.[1] Egzoz gazı kaynaklı olanlar da dahil olmak üzere, kötü hava kalitesi olan yerlerde KOAH oranları daha yüksektir.[29] Tüm bunlara rağmen bu faktörlerin, tütün kullanımına oranlar daha düşük risk taşıdığına inanılmaktadır.[1]

Mesleki maruz[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

İş yeri kaynaklı tozlar, kimyasallar ve dumanlara yoğun ve uzun süre maruz kalmak, tütün kullanan veya kullanmayan herkes için KOAH riskini yükseltir.[31] Mesleki maruzun, toplam vakaların %10-20'sine sebep olduğuna inanılmaktadır.[32] ABD'de bu şartların tütün kullanmamış KOAH hastalarının %30'undan fazlasına neden olduğu, yeterli yasaların olmadığı ülkelerde bunun daha da yükseldiği belirtilmektedir.[1]

Bazı sanayiler ve kaynakların hastalıkla bağlantılı olduğu gösterilmiştir:[29] kömür madeni tozu, altın madenciliği, pamuk tekstil sanayi, kadmiyum ve izosiyanat içeren uğraşlar, kaynak dumanları vb.[31] Tarımla ilgili işler de risk taşır.[29] Bazı mesleklerin sahip olduğu risk, yarım ila iki paket sigara tüketiminin verdiği riskle eşdeğer gösterilir.[33] Silika tozuna maruz kalmak da, silikozis riskinden bağımsız olarak KOAH ile sonuçlanabilr.[34] Toz ve sigaraya kalınan maruzun olumsuz etkileri aditif veya muhtemelen aditiften de fazladır.[33]

Genetik[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

KOAH gelişiminde genetiğin rolü vardır.[1] Akrabalarından KOAH hastası olan tütün kullanıcılarının, olmayan tütün kullanıcılarına göre hastalığa yakalanma riski daha yüksektir.[1] Şimdilik, açık bir şekilde kalıtsal olarak aktarılan risk faktörü AAT'dir.[35] Bu risk, AAT kusurlu olan ve tütün kullanan bireylerde daha da yüksektir.[35] Bu, tüm vakaların %1–5'inin nedenidir[35][36] ve durum 10.000 kişiden 3-4 kişide görülür.[2] Diğer genetik faktörler araştırılmaktadır[35] ve çok olduğu öngörülmektedir.[29]

Diğer[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Bazı diğer etmenler, KOAH ile daha yakından alakalıdır. Risk, yoksul insanlar için daha yüksektir. Ancak bunun doğrudan yoksullukla mı, yoksa yoksulluğun yol açtığı diğer etmenlerle (hava kirliliği, yetersiz beslenme) mi ilgili olduğu kesin değildir.[1] Astım veya solunum yolu hiperaktivitesi olan insanlarda yükselen KOAH oranları olduğuna dair bulgular bulunmaktadır.[1] Düşük doğum ağırlığı gibi doğumsal etmenler, KOAH ve bazı enfeksiyon hastalıklarına yakalanma riskini arttırır.[1] Zatürre gibi solunum enfeksiyonlarının, en azından yetişkinler için, KOAH ile yakından bir ilişkisi olmadığı görülmektedir.[2]

Alevlenme[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Akut alevlenme (semptomların aniden kötüleşmesi),[37] sıklıkla enfeksiyonlar, çevresel kirleticiler ve hatta yanlış ilaç kullanımıyla tetiklenebilir.[38] Vakaların %50 ila 75'inin enfeksiyonlarla tetiklendiği görülmektedir[38][39] (bakterili olanlar %25, viral olanlar %25, ikisi birden %25).[40] Çevresel kirleticiler arasında kötü iç veya dış hava kalitesi yer alır.[38] Kişisel veya pasif olarak tütün dumanı da riski arttırır.[29] Alevlenme dönemlerinin daha çok kışın olduğu düşünüldüğünde soğuk havanın da tetikleyebileceği görülmektedir.[41] Altta yatan ağır hastalıklara sahip hastalar, alevlenmeyi daha sık yaşar: hafif hastalıklarda yılda 1,8 kez, orta derecedeki hastalıklarda yılda 2 ila 3 kez ve ağır hastalıklarda yılda 3,4 kez.[42] Sık alevlenme yaşayanlarda akciğer işlevi daha hızlı oranlarda kayba uğrar.[43] Pulmoner emboli (akciğerdeki kan pıhtıları) KOAH sahibi hastaların durumunu daha da kötüleştirir.[3]

Patofizyoloji[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

On the left is a diagram of the lungs and airways with an inset showing a detailed cross-section of normal bronchioles and alveoli. On the right is lungs damaged by COPD with an inset showing a cross-section of damaged bronchioles and alveoli

COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease in which chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow (airflow limitation) and inability to breathe out fully (air trapping) exist.[3] The poor airflow is the result of breakdown of lung tissue (known as emphysema) and small airways disease known as obstructive bronchiolitis. The relative contributions of these two factors vary between people.[1] Severe destruction of small airways can lead to the formation of large air pockets—known as bullae—that replace lung tissue. This form of disease is called bullous emphysema.[44]

Micrograph showing emphysema (left - large empty spaces) and lung tissue with relative preservation of the alveoli (right).

COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[1] Chronic bacterial infections may also add to this inflammatory state.[43] The inflammatory cells involved include neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cell. Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD have eosinophil involvement similar to that in asthma. Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with lung damage include oxidative stress produced by high concentrations of free radicals in tobacco smoke and released by inflammatory cells, and breakdown of the connective tissue of the lungs by proteases that are insufficiently inhibited by protease inhibitors. The destruction of the connective tissue of the lungs is what leads to emphysema, which then contributes to the poor airflow and, finally, poor absorption and release of respiratory gases.[1] General muscle wasting that often occurs in COPD may be partly due to inflammatory mediators released by the lungs into the blood.[1]

Narrowing of the airways occurs due to inflammation and scarring within them. This contributes to the inability to breathe out fully. The greatest reduction in air flow occurs when breathing out, as the pressure in the chest is compressing the airways at this time.[45] This can result in more air from the previous breath remaining within the lungs when the next breath is started, resulting in an increase in the total volume of air in the lungs at any given time, a process called hyperinflation or air trapping.[45][46] Hyperinflation from exercise is linked to shortness of breath in COPD, as it is less comfortable to breathe in when the lungs are already partly full.[47]

Some also have a degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to irritants similar to those found in asthma.[2]

Low oxygen levels and, eventually, high carbon dioxide levels in the blood can occur from poor gas exchange due to decreased ventilation from airway obstruction, hyperinflation and a reduced desire to breathe.[1] During exacerbations, airway inflammation is also increased, resulting in increased hyperinflation, reduced expiratory airflow and worsening of gas transfer. This can also lead to insufficient ventilation and, eventually, low blood oxygen levels.[4] Low oxygen levels, if present for a prolonged period, can result in narrowing of the arteries in the lungs, while emphysema leads to breakdown of capillaries in the lungs. Both these changes result in increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which may cause cor pulmonale.[1]

Tanı[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A person sitting and blowing into a device attached to a computer
A person blowing into a spirometer. Smaller handheld devices are available for office use.

The diagnosis of COPD should be considered in anyone over the age of 35 to 40 who has shortness of breath, a chronic cough, sputum production, or frequent winter colds and a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease.[9][10] Spirometry is then used to confirm the diagnosis.[9][48]

Spirometri[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Spirometry measures the amount of airflow obstruction present and is generally carried out after the use of a bronchodilator, a medication to open up the airways.[48] Two main components are measured to make the diagnosis: the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of a breath, and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a single large breath.[49] Normally, 75–80% of the FVC comes out in the first second[49] and a FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 70% in someone with symptoms of COPD defines a person as having the disease.[48] Based on these measurements, spirometry would lead to over-diagnosis of COPD in the elderly.[48] The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria additionally require a FEV1 of less than 80% of predicted.[10]

Evidence for using spirometry among those without symptoms in an effort to diagnose the condition earlier is of uncertain effect and is therefore currently not recommended.[9][48] A peak expiratory flow (the maximum speed of expiration), commonly used in asthma, is not sufficient for the diagnosis of COPD.[10]

Şiddet[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

MRC shortness of breath scale[10]
Grade Activity affected
1 Only strenuous activity
2 Vigorous walking
3 With normal walking
4 After a few minutes of walking
5 With changing clothing
GOLD grade[9]
Severity FEV1 % predicted
Mild (GOLD 1) ≥80
Moderate (GOLD 2) 50–79
Severe (GOLD 3) 30–49
Very severe (GOLD 4) <30 or chronic respiratory failure

There are a number of methods to determine how much COPD is affecting a given individual.[9] The modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire (mMRC) or the COPD assessment test (CAT) are simple questionnaires that may be used to determine the severity of symptoms.[9] Scores on CAT range from 0–40 with the higher the score, the more severe the disease.[50] Spirometry may help to determine the severity of airflow limitation.[9] This is typically based on the FEV1 expressed as a percentage of the predicted "normal" for the person's age, gender, height and weight.[9] Both the American and European guidelines recommended partly basing treatment recommendations on the FEV1.[48] The GOLD guidelines suggest dividing people into four categories based on symptoms assessment and airflow limitation.[9] Weight loss and muscle weakness, as well as the presence of other diseases, should also be taken into account.[9]

Diğer testler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions at the time of diagnosis.[51] Characteristic signs on X-ray are overexpanded lungs, a flattened diaphragm, increased retrosternal airspace, and bullae while it can help exclude other lung diseases, such as pneumonia, pulmonary edema or a pneumothorax.[52] A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest may show the distribution of emphysema throughout the lungs and can also be useful to exclude other lung diseases.[2] Unless surgery is planned, however, this rarely affects management.[2] An analysis of arterial blood is used to determine the need for oxygen; this is recommended in those with an FEV1 less than 35% predicted, those with a peripheral oxygen saturation of less than 92% and those with symptoms of congestive heart failure.[9] In areas of the world where alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is common, people with COPD (particularly those below the age of 45 and with emphysema affecting the lower parts of the lungs) should be considered for testing.[9]

Ayırıcı tanı[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

COPD may need to be differentiated from other causes of shortness of breath such as congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia or pneumothorax. Many people with COPD mistakenly think they have asthma.[16] The distinction between asthma and COPD is made on the basis of the symptoms, smoking history, and whether airflow limitation is reversible with bronchodilators at spirometry.[53] Tuberculosis may also present with a chronic cough and should be considered in locations where it is common.[9] Less common conditions that may present similarly include bronchopulmonary dysplasia and obliterative bronchiolitis.[51] Chronic bronchitis may occur with normal airflow and in this situation it is not classified as COPD.[2]

Önlem[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Most cases of COPD are potentially preventable through decreasing exposure to smoke and improving air quality.[29] Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations, hospitalizations and death.[54][55] Pneumococcal vaccination may also be beneficial.[54]

Sigarayı bırakma[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Keeping people from starting smoking is a key aspect of preventing COPD.[56] The policies of governments, public health agencies and anti-smoking organizations can reduce smoking rates by discouraging people from starting and encouraging people to stop smoking.[57] Smoking bans in public areas and places of work are important measures to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke and while many places have instituted bans more are recommended.[29]

In those who smoke, stopping smoking is the only measure shown to slow down the worsening of COPD.[58] Even at a late stage of the disease, it can reduce the rate of worsening lung function and delay the onset of disability and death.[59] Smoking cessation starts with the decision to stop smoking, leading to an attempt at quitting. Often several attempts are required before long-term abstinence is achieved.[57] Attempts over 5 years lead to success in nearly 40% of people.[60]

Some smokers can achieve long-term smoking cessation through willpower alone. Smoking, however, is highly addictive,[61] and many smokers need further support. The chance of quitting is improved with social support, engagement in a smoking cessation program and the use of medications such as nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline.[57][60]

Meslek sağlığı[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A number of measures have been taken to reduce the likelihood that workers in at-risk industries—such as coal mining, construction and stonemasonry—will develop COPD.[29] Examples of these measures include: the creation of public policy,[29] education of workers and management about the risks, promoting smoking cessation, checking workers for early signs of COPD, use of respirators, and dust control.[62][63] Effective dust control can be achieved by improving ventilation, using water sprays and by using mining techniques that minimize dust generation.[64] If a worker develops COPD, further lung damage can be reduced by avoiding ongoing dust exposure, for example by changing the work role.[65]

Hava kirliliği[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Both indoor and outdoor air quality can be improved, which may prevent COPD or slow the worsening of existing disease.[29] This may be achieved by public policy efforts, cultural changes, and personal involvement.[66]

A number of developed countries have successfully improved outdoor air quality through regulations. This has resulted in improvements in the lung function of their populations.[29] Those with COPD may experience fewer symptoms if they stay indoors on days when outdoor air quality is poor.[4]

One key effort is to reduce exposure to smoke from cooking and heating fuels through improved ventilation of homes and better stoves and chimneys.[66] Proper stoves may improve indoor air quality by 85%. Using alternative energy sources such as solar cooking and electrical heating is effective, as is using fuels such as kerosene or coal rather than biomass.[29]

Yönetim[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

There is no known cure for COPD, but the symptoms are treatable and its progression can be delayed.[56] The major goals of management are to reduce risk factors, manage stable COPD, prevent and treat acute exacerbations, and manage associated illnesses.[4] The only measures that have been shown to reduce mortality are smoking cessation and supplemental oxygen.[67] Stopping smoking decreases the risk of death by 18%.[3] Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, pneumococcal vaccination once every 5 years, and reduction in exposure to environmental air pollution.[3] In those with advanced disease, palliative care may reduce symptoms, with morphine improving the feelings of shortness of breath.[68] Noninvasive ventilation may be used to support breathing.[68]

Egzersiz[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of exercise, disease management and counseling, coordinated to benefit the individual.[69] In those who have had a recent exacerbation, pulmonary rehabilitation appears to improve the overall quality of life and the ability to exercise, and reduce mortality.[70] It has also been shown to improve the sense of control a person has over their disease, as well as their emotions.[71] Breathing exercises in and of themselves appear to have a limited role.[15]

Being either underweight or overweight can affect the symptoms, degree of disability and prognosis of COPD. People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle strength by increasing their calorie intake.[4] When combined with regular exercise or a pulmonary rehabilitation program, this can lead to improvements in COPD symptoms. Supplemental nutrition may be useful in those who are malnourished.[72]

Bronkodilatörler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used[3] and result in a small overall benefit.[73] There are two major types, β2 agonists and anticholinergics; both exist in long-acting and short-acting forms. They reduce shortness of breath, wheeze and exercise limitation, resulting in an improved quality of life.[74] It is unclear if they change the progression of the underlying disease.[3]

In those with mild disease, short-acting agents are recommended on an as needed basis.[3] In those with more severe disease, long-acting agents are recommended.[3] If long-acting bronchodilators are insufficient, then inhaled corticosteroids are typically added.[3] With respect to long-acting agents, it is unclear if tiotropium (a long-acting anticholinergic) or long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are better, and it may be worth trying each and continuing the one that worked best.[75] Both types of agent appear to reduce the risk of acute exacerbations by 15–25%.[3] While both may be used at the same time, any benefit is of questionable significance.[76]

There are several short-acting β2 agonists available including salbutamol (Ventolin) and terbutaline.[77] They provide some relief of symptoms for four to six hours.[77] Long-acting β2 agonists such as salmeterol and formoterol are often used as maintenance therapy. Some feel the evidence of benefits is limited[78] while others view the evidence of benefit as established.[79][80] Long-term use appears safe in COPD[81] with adverse effects include shakiness and heart palpitations.[3] When used with inhaled steroids they increase the risk of pneumonia.[3] While steroids and LABAs may work better together,[78] it is unclear if this slight benefit outweighs the increased risks.[82]

There are two main anticholinergics used in COPD, ipratropium and tiotropium. Ipratropium is a short-acting agent while tiotropium is long-acting. Tiotropium is associated with a decrease in exacerbations and improved quality of life,[76] and tiotropium provides those benefits better than ipratropium.[83] It does not appear to affect mortality or the over all hospitalization rate.[84] Anticholinergics can cause dry mouth and urinary tract symptoms.[3] They are also associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.[85][86] Aclidinium, another long acting agent which came to market in 2012, has been used as an alternative to tiotropium.[87][88]

Kortikosteroitler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Corticosteroids are usually used in inhaled form but may also be used as tablets to treat and prevent acute exacerbations. While inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have not shown benefit for people with mild COPD, they decrease acute exacerbations in those with either moderate or severe disease.[89] When used in combination with a LABA they decrease mortality more than either ICS or LABA alone.[90] By themselves they have no effect on overall one-year mortality and are associated with increased rates of pneumonia.[67] It is unclear if they affect the progression of the disease.[3] Long-term treatment with steroid tablets is associated with significant side effects.[77]

Diğer ilaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Long-term antibiotics, specifically those from the macrolide class such as erythromycin, reduce the frequency of exacerbations in those who have two or more a year.[91][92] This practice may be cost effective in some areas of the world.[93] Concerns include that of antibiotic resistance and hearing problems with azithromycin.[92] Methylxanthines such as theophylline generally cause more harm than benefit and thus are usually not recommended,[94] but may be used as a second-line agent in those not controlled by other measures.[4] Mucolytics may be useful in some people who have very thick mucus but are generally not needed.[54] Cough medicines are not recommended.[77]

Oksijen[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Supplemental oxygen is recommended in those with low oxygen levels at rest (a partial pressure of oxygen of less than 50–55 mmHg or oxygen saturations of less than 88%).[77][95] In this group of people it decreases the risk of heart failure and death if used 15 hours per day[77][95] and may improve people's ability to exercise.[96] In those with normal or mildly low oxygen levels, oxygen supplementation may improve shortness of breath.[97] There is a risk of fires and little benefit when those on oxygen continue to smoke.[98] In this situation some recommend against its use.[99] During acute exacerbations, many require oxygen therapy; the use of high concentrations of oxygen without taking into account a person's oxygen saturations may lead to increased levels of carbon dioxide and worsened outcomes.[100][101] In those at high risk of high carbon dioxide levels, oxygen saturations of 88–92% are recommended, while for those without this risk recommended levels are 94–98%.[101]

Cerrahi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

For those with very severe disease surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume reduction surgery.[3] Lung volume reduction surgery involves removing the parts of the lung most damaged by emphysema allowing the remaining, relatively good lung to expand and work better.[77] Lung transplantation is sometimes performed for very severe COPD, particularly in younger individuals.[77]

Ataklar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Acute exacerbations are typically treated by increasing the usage of short-acting bronchodilators.[3] This commonly includes a combination of a short-acting inhaled beta agonist and anticholinergic.[37] These medications can be given either via a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer or via a nebulizer with both appearing to be equally effective.[37] Nebulization may be easier for those who are more unwell.[37]

Oral corticosteroids improve the chance of recovery and decrease the overall duration of symptoms.[3][37] They work equally well as intravenous steroids but appear to have fewer side effects.[102] Five days of steroids work as well as ten or fourteen.[103] In those with a severe exacerbation, antibiotics improve outcomes.[104] A number of different antibiotics may be used including amoxicillin, doxycycline and azithromycin; it is unclear if one is better than the others.[54] There is no clear evidence for those with less severe cases.[104]

For those with type 2 respiratory failure (acutely raised Şablon:CO2 levels) non-invasive positive pressure ventilation decreases the probability of death or the need of intensive care admission.[3] Additionally, theophylline may have a role in those who do not respond to other measures.[3] Fewer than 20% of exacerbations require hospital admission.[37] In those without acidosis from respiratory failure, home care ("hospital at home") may be able to help avoid some admissions.[37][105]

Prognoz[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Disability-adjusted life year for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[106]
██ no data ██ ≤110 ██ 110–220 ██ 220–330 ██ 330–440 ██ 440–550 ██ 550–660
██ 660–770 ██ 770–880 ██ 880–990 ██ 990–1100 ██ 1100–1350 ██ ≥1350

COPD usually gets gradually worse over time and can ultimately result in death. It is estimated that 3% of all disability is related to COPD.[107] The proportion of disability from COPD globally has decreased from 1990 to 2010 due to improved indoor air quality primarily in Asia.[107] The overall number of years lived with disability from COPD, however, has increased.[108]

The rate at which COPD worsens varies with the presence of factors that predict a poor outcome, including severe airflow obstruction, little ability to exercise, shortness of breath, significantly underweight or overweight, congestive heart failure, continued smoking, and frequent exacerbations.[4] Long-term outcomes in COPD can be estimated using the BODE index which gives a score of zero to ten depending on FEV1, body-mass index, the distance walked in six minutes, and the modified MRC dyspnea scale.[109] Significant weight loss is a bad sign.[2] Results of spirometry are also a good predictor of the future progress of the disease but not as good as the BODE index.[2][10]

Epidemiyoloji[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Globally, as of 2010, COPD affected approximately 329 million people (4.8% of the population) and is slightly more common in men than women.[108] This is as compared to 64 million being affected in 2004.[110] The increase in the developing world between 1970 and the 2000s is believed to be related to increasing rates of smoking in this region, an increasing population and an aging population due to less deaths from other causes such as infectious diseases.[3] Some developed countries have seen increased rates, some have remained stable and some have seen a decrease in COPD prevalence.[3] The global numbers are expected to continue increasing as risk factors remain common and the population continues to get older.[56]

Between 1990 and 2010 the number of deaths from COPD decreased slightly from 3.1 million to 2.9 million[111] and became the fourth leading cause of death.[3] In 2012 it became the third leading cause as the number of deaths rose again to 3.1 million.[6] In some countries, mortality has decreased in men but increased in women.[112] This is most likely due to rates of smoking in women and men becoming more similar.[2] COPD is more common in older people;[1] it affects 34-200 out of 1000 people older than 65 years, depending on the population under review.[1][52]

In England, an estimated 0.84 million people (of 50 million) have a diagnosis of COPD; this translates into approximately one person in 59 receiving a diagnosis of COPD at some point in their lives. In the most socioeconomically deprived parts of the country, one in 32 people were diagnosed with COPD, compared with one in 98 in the most affluent areas.[113] In the United States approximately 6.3% of the adult population, totaling approximately 15 million people, have been diagnosed with COPD.[114] 25 million people may have COPD if currently undiagnosed cases are included.[115] In 2011, there were approximately 730,000 hospitalizations in the United States for COPD.[116]

Tarih[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who made one of the earliest recorded descriptions of emphysema in 1769

The word "emphysema" is derived from the Greek ἐμφυσᾶν emphysan meaning "inflate" -itself composed of ἐν en, meaning "in", and φυσᾶν physan, meaning "breath, blastŞablon:-".[117] The term chronic bronchitis came into use in 1808[118] while the term COPD is believed to have first been used in 1965.[119] Previously it has been known by a number of different names, including chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive respiratory disease, chronic airflow obstruction, chronic airflow limitation, chronic obstructive lung disease, nonspecific chronic pulmonary disease, and diffuse obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema were formally defined in 1959 at the CIBA guest symposium and in 1962 at the American Thoracic Society Committee meeting on Diagnostic Standards.[119]

Early descriptions of probable emphysema include: in 1679 by T. Bonet of a condition of "voluminous lungs" and in 1769 by Giovanni Morgagni of lungs which were "turgid particularly from air".[119][120] In 1721 the first drawings of emphysema were made by Ruysh.[120] These were followed with pictures by Matthew Baillie in 1789 and descriptions of the destructive nature of the condition. In 1814 Charles Badham used "catarrh" to describe the cough and excess mucus in chronic bronchitis. René Laennec, the physician who invented the stethoscope, used the term "emphysema" in his book A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest and of Mediate Auscultation (1837) to describe lungs that did not collapse when he opened the chest during an autopsy. He noted that they did not collapse as usual because they were full of air and the airways were filled with mucus. In 1842, John Hutchinson invented the spirometer, which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his spirometer could only measure volume, not airflow. Tiffeneau and Pinelli in 1947 described the principles of measuring airflow.[119]

In 1953, Dr. George L. Waldbott, an American allergist, first described a new disease he named "smoker's respiratory syndrome" in the 1953 Journal of the American Medical Association. This was the first association between tobacco smoking and chronic respiratory disease.[121]

Early treatments included garlic, cinnamon and ipecac, among others.[118] Modern treatments were developed during the second half of the 20th century. Evidence supporting the use of steroids in COPD were published in the late 1950s. Bronchodilators came into use in the 1960s following a promising trial of isoprenaline. Further bronchodilators, such as salbutamol, were developed in the 1970s, and the use of LABAs began in the mid-1990s.[122]

Toplum ve kültür[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

COPD has been referred to as "smoker's lung".[123] Those with emphysema have been known as "pink puffers" or "type A" due to their frequent pink complexion, fast respiratory rate and pursed lips,[124][125] and people with chronic bronchitis have been referred to as "blue bloaters" or "type B" due to the often bluish color of the skin and lips from low oxygen levels and their ankle swelling.[125][126] This terminology is no longer accepted as useful as most people with COPD have a combination of both.[2][125]

Many health systems have difficulty ensuring appropriate identification, diagnosis and care of people with COPD; Britain's Department of Health has identified this as a major issue for the National Health Service and has introduced a specific strategy to tackle these problems.[127]

Ekonomi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Globally, as of 2010, COPD is estimated to result in economic costs of $2.1 trillion, half of which occurring in the developing world.[8] Of this total an estimated $1.9 trillion are direct costs such as medical care, while $0.2 trillion are indirect costs such as missed work.[128] This is expected to more than double by the year 2030.[8] In Europe, COPD represents 3% of healthcare spending.[1] In the United States, costs of the disease are estimated at $50 billion, most of which is due to exacerbation.[1] COPD was among the most expensive conditions seen in U.S. hospitals in 2011, with a total cost of about $5.7 billion.[116]

Araştırma[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD but there was no evidence of benefit with the possibility of harm.[129] Roflumilast shows promise in decreasing the rate of exacerbations but does not appear to change quality of life.[3] A number of new, long-acting agents are under development.[3] Treatment with stem cells is under study,[130] and while generally safe and with promising animal data there is little human data as of 2014.[131]

Diğer hayvanlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may occur in a number of other animals and may be caused by exposure to tobacco smoke.[132][133] Most cases of the disease, however, are relatively mild.[134] In horses it is also known as recurrent airway obstruction and is typically due to an allergic reaction to a fungus contained in straw.[135] COPD is also commonly found in old dogs.[136]

Ayrıca bakınız[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Bibliyografi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]


Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

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