Func Devleti

Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Atla: kullan, ara
Mavi Sultanlığı / Func Sultanlığı
السلطنة الزرقاء (Arapça)
As-Saltana az-Zarqa
—  Konfederasyon  —

1504-1821
1750 yılında Sennar Sultanlığı (pembe) ve diğer devletler
Başkent Sennar
Din İslam[1]
Yönetim Monarşi
 - 1504–1533/4 Amara Dunqas (ilk)
 - 1805–1821 VII. Badi (son)
Yasama organı Büyük Konsey[2]
Tarihi
 - Func Devleti'nin kuruluşu 1504
 - Kavalalı tarafından fetihi 15 Temmuz 1821
 - Mısır Hidivliğine ilhakı 15 Şubat 1841
Nüfus
 - 1820 5156000[b] 
Para birimi Yok (barter)[c]
 a. Muhammad Ali was granted the non-hereditary governorship of Sudan by an 1841 Ottoman Firman.[3]

 b. Estimate for entire area covered by modern Sudan.[4]  c. The Funj Sultanate did not mint coins and the markets did not use coinage as a form of exchange.[5] French surgeon J. C. Poncet, who visited Sennar in 1699, mentions the use of foreign coins such as Spanish reals.[6]

Func Devleti, Func Sultanlığı veya Sennar Sultanlığı 1504 yılında bugün Sudan'ın Nubye bölgesinde yer alan Sennar merkezli olarak kurulan zenci krallığı. Sonradan Müslüman olmuş, fiilen Osmanlı Devleti'ne bağlı olmakla birlikte, 1821 yılında Mısır Valisi Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Paşa tarafından fethedilerek doğrudan Mısır Hidivliği'ne ilhak edilmiştir.

Func Devleti'nin denize mahreci Suakin limanı olup, daha 1517 yılında bu liman kenti Türk topraklarına katılmıştı. Bu sayede Osmanlı Devleti kendine biçimsel olarak bağlı krallığın ticaretini de denetim altında tutabiliyordu.

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ Trimingham, J. Spencer (1996). "Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa, till the 19th century". The Last Great Muslim Empires. History of the Muslim World, 3. Abbreviated and adapted by F. R. C. Bagley (2nd bas.). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers. ss. 167. ISBN 978-1-55876-112-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=cPlP5Y4of7AC&pg=PA167. "The date when the Funj rulers adopted Islam is not known, but must have been fairly soon after the foundation of Sennār, because they then entered into relations with Muslim groups over a wide area." 
  2. ^ Welch, Galbraith (1949) (snippet view). North African Prelude: The First Seven Thousand Years. New York: W. Morrow. ss. 463. OCLC 413248. http://books.google.com/books?id=RH1yAAAAMAAJ&q=great+council. Erişim tarihi: 12 Ağustos 2010. "The government was semirepublican; when a king died the great council picked a successor from among the royal children. Then—presumably to keep the peace—they killed all the rest." 
  3. ^ "فرمان سلطاني إلى محمد علي بتقليده حكم السودان بغير حق التوارث" (Arabic). Bibliotheca Alexandrina: Memory of Modern Egypt Digital Archive. http://modernegypt.bibalex.org/TxtViewer/TextViewer.aspx?ID=20038&type=Document. Erişim tarihi: 12 Ağustos 2010. 
  4. ^ Avakov, Alexander V. (2010). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics: World Population, GDP, and PPP. New York: Algora Publishing. ss. 18. ISBN 978-0-87586-750-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=kRZ6Rw5ebLAC&pg=PA18. 
  5. ^ Anderson, Julie R. (2008). "A Mamluk Coin from Kulubnarti, Sudan" (PDF). British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (10): p. 68. http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Anderson.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 12 August 2010. "Much further to the south, the Funj Sultanate based in Sennar (1504/5–1820), did not mint coins and the markets did not normally use coinage as a form of exchange. Foreign coins themselves were commodities and frequently kept for jewellery. Units of items such as gold, grain, iron, cloth and salt had specific values and were used for trade, particularly on a national level." 
  6. ^ Pinkerton, John (1814). "Poncet's Journey to Abyssinia". A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World. Volume 15. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. ss. 71. OCLC 1397394. http://books.google.com/books?id=LiAnAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA71.