Central Park

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Central Park
Southwest corner of Central Park, looking east, NYC.jpg
Tür Şehir parkı
Bulunduğu Yer Manhattan, New York, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri
Harita {{{Harita}}}
Koordinatlar 40°47′K 73°58′B / 40.783°K 73.967°B / 40.783; -73.967Koordinatlar: 40°47′K 73°58′B / 40.783°K 73.967°B / 40.783; -73.967
Kapladığı Alan 843 akr (341 hektar)
Açılış Tarihi 1857
İşletmeci Central Park Conservancy
Durum Tüm yıl boyunca ziyarete açık
İntenet sitesi {{{İnternet sitesi}}}

Central Park, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin New York şehri Manhattan ilçesinde yer alan büyük umumi kentsel bir parktır. Yıllık ortalama 25 milyon ziyaretçisiyle Central Park, Birleşik Amerika'da en çok ziyaret edilen kent parkıdır. Birçok film ve televizyon şovları bu parkı dünyadaki en ünlü şehir parkı yapmıştır ve ayrıca Central park`ta yüzmek yasalara aykırıdır.

1857–1900[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Angel of the Waters, in Bethesda Fountain (sculpted 1873)
Bethesda Fountain
The Dairy

Central Park, 1811 Komisyonları Planı'na dahil değildi. however, between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population. Since it was not part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, John Randel, Jr., surveyed the park and the only remaining surveying bolt from his survey is still visible . The bolt is in a rock just north of the Dairy and the 65th Street Transverse and south of Center Drive. Şehrin genişlemesiyle, insanların gürültüden ve kaotik yaşamdan uzaklaşmaları için birkaç açık alan ve mezarlıklar dışında bir yer yokt.[1]

New York'un büyük bir parka ihtiyacı olduğu Evening Post (günümüzde [[New York Post]]) şairi ve editörü William Cullen Bryant ve Amerika'nın ilk peyzaj mimarı Andrew Jackson Downing tarafından 1844'de ilan edilmiştir.A stylish place for open-air driving, similar to the Bois de Boulogne in Paris or London's Hyde Park, was felt to be needed by many influential New Yorkers, and, after an abortive attempt in 1850-51 to designate Jones's Wood, in 1853 the New York legislature settled upon a Şablon:Convert/acre area from 59th to 106th Streets for the creation of the park, at a cost of more than US$5 million for the land alone.[kaynak belirtilmeli]

Devlet parkın geliştirilmesi için Central Park Komisyonu'nu kurdu. 1857 yılında komisyon peyzaj tasarımı yarışması düzenledi ve yarışmayı Frederick Law Olmsted ve Calvert Vaux'ın geliştirdiği Greensward Planı kazandı.

Olmsted'e göre park,"of great importance as the first real Park made in this country—a democratic development of the highest significance…," a view probably inspired by his stay and various trips in Europe during 1850.[2] Bu gezi sırasında birçok park gezdi en çok etkilendiği parklar ise İngiltere'deki Birkenhead Park ve Derby Arboretum'dur.

BirçokSeveral influences came together in the design. Landscaped cemeteries, such as Mount Auburn (Cambridge, Massachusetts) and Green-Wood (Brooklyn, New York) had set examples of idyllic, naturalistic landscapes. The most influential innovations in the Central Park design were the "separate circulation" systems for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles. The "crosstown" commercial traffic was entirely concealed in sunken roadways, (today called "transverses"), screened with densely planted shrub belts so as to maintain a rustic ambiance.

The Greensward plan called for some 36 bridges, all designed by Vaux, ranging from rugged spans of Manhattan schist or granite, to lacy neo-gothic cast iron; no two are alike. The ensemble of the formal line of the Mall's doubled allées of elms culminating at Bethesda Terrace, whose centerpiece is the Bethesda Fountain, with a composed view beyond of lake and woodland, was at the heart of the larger design.

Greensward Planını uygulama sorumluluğu Jacob Wrey Mould (mimar), Ignaz Anton Pilat (master gardener), George Waring (mühendis), Andrew Haswell Green (politikacı), ve ek olarak Olmsted ve Vaux'a aitti.

Parkın yapımının başlaması için bölge sakinlerinin temizlenmesi gerekiyordu.[3] Bölge sakinleri özgür Afroamerikanlardan, İngiliz ve İrlanda kökenli insankardan oluşuyordu ayrıca çoğu fakirdi.Free people of color|free African Americans]] or residents of English or Irish origin. Most of them lived in small villages, such as Seneca Village, Harsenville, or the Piggery District; or in the school and convent at Mount St. Vincent's Academy. Around 1,600 residents occupying the area at the time, were evicted under the rule of eminent domain during 1857. Seneca Village gibi birçok yer parkın yapılmasıiçin yıkıldı.

A map of Central Park from 1875

During the construction of the park, Olmsted fought constant battles with the park commissioners, many of whom were appointees of the city's Democratic machine[kaynak belirtilmeli]. In 1860, he was forced out for the first of many times as Central Park's superintendent, and Andrew Haswell Green, the former president of New York City's board of education took over as the chairman of the commission.[kaynak belirtilmeli] Despite the fact that he had relatively little experience, he still managed to accelerate the construction, as well as to finalize the negotiations for the purchase of an additional Şablon:Convert/acre at the north end of the park, between 106th and 110th Streets, which would be used as the "rugged" part of the park, its swampy northeast corner dredged, and reconstructed as the Harlem Meer.[kaynak belirtilmeli]

1860 ve 1873 yılları arasında birçok engelin üstesinden gelinmiş ve park büyük ölçüde tamamlanmış. Construction combined the modern with the ageless: up-to-date steam-powered equipment and custom-designed wheeled tree moving machines augmented massive numbers of unskilled laborers wielding shovels. The work was extensively documented with technical drawings and photographs. Bu dönemde, 18,500'den fazla cubic yards (14,000 m³) of topsoil had been transported in from New Jersey, because the original soil was not fertile or substantial enough to sustain the various trees, shrubs, and plants called for by the Greensward Plan. Park 1873 yılında resmen tamamlandığında 10 milyondan fazla araba dolusu malzeme, toprak ve kaya more than ten million cartloads of material had been transported out of the park, including soil and rocks. 4 milyondan fazla ağaç ve bitki, yaklaşık olarak 1,500 tür parka nakledildi.

Alanı temizlemek için Gettysburg Muharebesi'nde kullanılan baruttan daha fazla barut kullanıldı.[4]

Sheep grazed on the Sheep Meadow from the 1860s until 1934, when they were moved to Prospect Park in Brooklyn,and were soon moved to a farm near Otisville, New York as it was feared they would be used for food by impoverished Depression-era New Yorkers.

1900–1960[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A children's festival in Central Park, sponsored by the Federal Art Project in September 1938.

Following completion, the park quickly slipped into decline. One of the main reasons for this was the lack of interest of the Tammany Hall political machine, which was the largest political force in New York at the time. 20. yüzyılın başlarında park birçok yeni zorluklarla karşı karşıya kalacaktır. Arabalar yaygın olarak kullanımaya başladı ve beraberinde, bringing with them their burden of pollution, and people's attitudes were beginning to change. No longer were parks to be used only for walks and picnics in an idyllic environment, but now also for sports, and similar recreation. Following the dissolution of the Central Park Commission in 1870 and Andrew Green's departure from the project, and the death of Vaux in 1895, the maintenance effort gradually declined, and there were few, if any, attempts to replace dead trees, bushes and plants, or worn-out lawn. For several decades, authorities did little or nothing to prevent vandalism and the littering of the park.

All of this changed in 1934, when Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City and unified the five park-related departments then in existence. Robert Moses was given the task of cleaning up the park. Moses, about to become one of the mightiest men in New York City, took over what was essentially a relic, a leftover from a bygone era.

According to historian Robert Caro in his 1974 book The Power Broker:

Lawns, unseeded, were expanses of bare earth, decorated with scraggly patches of grass and weeds, that became dust holes in dry weather and mud holes in wet…. The once beautiful Mall looked like a scene of a wild party the morning after. Benches lay on their backs, their legs jabbing at the sky...

Bir yıl içinde Moses Central Park'ı ve New York'taki diğer parkları temizlemeyi başardı. Çimler ve çiçekler tekrar dikildi, ölü ağaçlar ve çalılar değiştirildi, köprüler tamir edildi. Another dramatic change was Moses's removal of the "Hoover Valley" shantytown, whose site was transformed into the Şablon:Convert/acre Great Lawn.[5] Major redesigning and construction also was carried out: for instance, the Croton Lower Reservoir was filled in so the Great Lawn could be created. The Greensward Plan's purpose of creating an idyllic landscape was combined with Moses' vision of a park to be used for recreational purposes—19 playgrounds, 12 ball fields, and handball courts were constructed. Moses also managed to secure funds from the New Deal program, as well as donations from the public.

Günümüzde Central Park[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Central Park New York City.svg

Central Park, mimar ve yazar Frederick Law Olmsted ve İngiliz mimar Calvert Vaux'ın 1858 yılında tasarım yarışmasını kazanmaları üzerine planlanmıştır. 1962 yılından beri which has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962, was designed by landscape architect and writer Frederick Law Olmsted and the English architect Calvert Vaux in 1858 after winning a design competition. Ayrıca Brooklyn'indeki Prospect Park'ı da tasarlamışlardır.[6][7][8]

Central Park New York'un en meşhur yerlerinden birisidir. It is bordered on the north by Central Park North, on the south by Central Park South, on the west by Central Park West, and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Only Fifth Avenue along the park's eastern border retains its name; the other streets bordering the park (110th Street, 59th Street, and Eighth Avenue, respectively) change names while they are adjacent to the park.

Ziyaretçiler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Amerika Birleşik Devletler'nde en çok ziyaret edilen parktır.[9] Yılda yaklaşık 35 milyon insan bu parkı ziyaret eder.[10] It was opened on Şablon:Convert/acre of city-owned land and was expanded to Şablon:Convert/acre. It is 2.5 miles (4 km) long between 59th Street (Central Park South) and 110th Street (Central Park North), and is 0.5 miles (0.8 km) wide between Fifth Avenue and Central Park West. Its size and cultural position, similar to Munich's Englischer Garten and London's Hyde Park, has served as a model for many urban parks, including San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, Tokyo's Ueno Park, and Vancouver's Stanley Park

Etkinlikler[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Boathouse Cafe
  • Kuşçuluk: A wooded section of the park called "The Ramble" is popular among birders. Many species of woodland birds, especially warblers, may be seen in The Ramble in Spring and Fall.
  • Boating: Rowboats and kayaks are rented on an hourly basis at the Loeb Boathouse, which also houses a restaurant overlooking the Lake. As early as 1922,[11] model power boating was popular on park waters.
  • Carriage horses: the carriage horse industry, revived in New York City in 1935,[12] has been featured in various films; the first female carriage driver, Maggie Cogan, appeared in a newsreel in 1967.[13] The ethics of this tradition and the effects on horse health and well being have been questioned by various animal rights activists.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]
  • Pedicabs: Pedicabs operate mostly in the southern part of the park, the same part as horse carriages.
  • Sports: Park Drive, just over 6 mil (9.7 km) long, is a haven for runners, joggers, bicyclists, and inline skaters. Most weekends, races take place in the park, many of which are organized by the New York Road Runners. The New York City Marathon finishes in Central Park outside Tavern on the Green. Many other professional races are run in the park, including the recent, (2008), USA Men's 8k Championships. Baseball fields are numerous, and there are also courts for volleyball, tennis, croquet and lawn bowling.
    • Rock Climbing: Central Park's glaciated rock outcroppings attract climbers, especially boulderers; Manhattan's bedrock, a glaciated schist, protrudes from the ground frequently and considerably in some parts of Central Park. The two most renowned spots for boulderers are Rat Rock and Cat Rock; others include Dog Rock, Duck Rock, Rock N' Roll Rock, and Beaver Rock, near the south end of the park.[21]
    • Buz Pateni: Central Park'ta iki tane buz pisti alanı bulunmaktadır. Bunlar Wollman Rink ve Lasker Rink,tir. Yaz aylarında yüzme havuzuna dönüştürülür
Carousel
Summerstage features free musical concerts throughout the summer
Tavern on the Green, now a closed restaurant, it was originally built in the era of Tammany Hall to house Central Park's sheep.
  1. ^ John Emerson Todd, Frederick Law Olmsted (Boston: Twayne Publishers: Twayne’s World Leader Series) 1982:73; see the history of Green-Wood Cemetery.
  2. ^ Olmsted letter to Parke Godwin August 1, 1858. See Empire City The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape http://www.temple.edu/tempress/titles/714_reg.html
  3. ^ Peter H. Rossi, Down and Out in America: The Origins of Homelessness, University of Chicago Press, 1989, ISBN 0-226-72828-5. Rossi states that part of the impetus to schemes such as Central Park and others was to remove the eyesore of shanty towns.
  4. ^ Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar, The Park and the People: a history of Central Park, 1992:150.
  5. ^ Stern, Robert A.M.; Gregory Gilmartin, Thomas Mellins (1987). New York 1930. Rizzoli New York. ss. 710. ISBN 978-0-8478-3096-1. 
  6. ^ "Central Park". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 10, 2007. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=388&ResourceType=District. 
  7. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory". National Park Service. August 14, 1975. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/66000538.pdf. 
  8. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory". National Park Service. August 14, 1975. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Photos/66000538.pdf. 
  9. ^ "America's Most Visited City Parks" (PDF). The Trust for Public Land. June 2006. 2006-07-25 tarihinde özgün kaynağından arşivlendi. http://web.archive.org/web/20060725034722/http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/ccpe_MostVisitedParks.pdf. Erişim tarihi: July 11, 2006. 
  10. ^ "Central Park FAQ". http://www.centralparknyc.org/visit/general-info/faq/. 
  11. ^ Powerboats
  12. ^ Tradition or Cruelty?, Jessica Bennett, Newsweek, September 25, 2007; Retrieved 2008-08-23
  13. ^ Chris Hicks (April 16, 1996). "Jupiter's Wife". Deseret News (Salt Lake City). 
  14. ^ Bill Could Halt New York Carriage Horses, Keith B. Richburg, The Washington Post, December 17, 2007; Retrieved 2008-08-23
  15. ^ Another Horse Down in Central Park, Blog of the ASPCA, September 17, 2007; Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  16. ^ PETA Fact Sheet on Horse Carriage; Retrieved 2008-08-23
  17. ^ Home on the Asphalt, Lloyd Grove, New York Magazine, March 16, 2008; Retrieved 2008-08-23
  18. ^ Carriage Horse Industry At A Crossroads, Kristin Cole, CBS News, November 5, 2007; Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  19. ^ Horse Pucky, Editorial of The New York Sun, November 30, 2007; Retrieved 2008-08-23
  20. ^ Film Highlights Suffering of NYC Carriage Horses, Humane Society of the United States, April 24, 2008
  21. ^ Christopher S. Wren, "A Summit in Central Park; Boulder Gives Climbers a Taste of the Mountain", The New York Times, July 21, 1999. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  22. ^ For the Bon Jovi concert, July 12, 2008, 60,000 free tickets were distributed by the city; a large section of Central Park was closed to the non-ticketed public.