Amerind dilleri

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Amerind dilleri
Coğrafi
dağılım:
Yeni Dünya
Sınıflandırma: Amerind–Nostratik
 Amerind dilleri
Alt bölümler:
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Kızılderili dilleri ya da Amerind dilleri, Sibirya kökenli Na-Dene dilleri dışındaki bütün Kızılderili halklarının konuştuğu dilleri toplayan ve Joseph Greenberg tarafından 1960 yılında ortaya atılan tartışmalı makro-dil ailesi. Greenberg, Yeni Dünya yerli dillerini üç ana aile olarak düzenler: Eskimo-Aleut dilleri, Na-Dene dilleri ve Amerind dilleri. 1987 yılında yayımladığı Language in the Americas adlı kitap, çok sayıda metodolojik kusura sahiptir ve önerdiği benzerlikler tarihî dilbilimcilerin çoğu tarafından reddedilir[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12].

Sınıflandırma[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

An Amerind Etymological Dictionary (Joseph Greenberg and Merritt Ruhlen, Stanford University, 2007) adını taşıyan çalışmaya göre sınıflandırma şöyledir:

  1. North–Central Amerind
    1. Northern Amerind
      1. Almosan–Keresiouan
        1. Algonkin–Vakaş dilleri
          1. Algonkin–Yurok dilleri
          2. Kutenayca
          3. Mos dilleri
            1. Çimakum dilleri
            2. Saliş dilleri
            3. Vakaş dilleri
        2. Keres-Siyu dilleri (Keresiouan)
          1. Kado dilleri
          2. İrokua dilleri
          3. Keres dilleri
          4. Siouan–Yuchi
            1. Siyu dilleri
            2. Yuçice
    2. Penutian–Hokan
      1. Penuti dilleri
        1. Çimşiyan dilleri
        2. Çinuk dilleri
        3. Oregon Penuti dilleri
        4. Plato Penuti dilleri
        5. California
          1. Maiduan
          2. Uti dilleri
          3. Vintu dilleri
          4. Yokuts dilleri
        6. Zunice
        7. Gulf
          1. Atakapaca
          2. Çitimaçaca
          3. Maskoke dilleri
          4. Natchez dili
          5. Tunikaca
          6. Yuki–Vapo dilleri
            1. Yukice
            2. Vapoca
        8. Meksika Penuti dilleri
          1. Huavece
          2. Maya dilleri
          3. Mişe–Zoke dilleri
          4. Totonak dilleri
      2. Hoka dilleri
        1. Kuzey Hoka dilleri
          1. Karok–Shasta
            1. Karukça
            2. Çimarikoca
            3. Shasta–Achomawi
              1. Şasta dilleri
              2. Achomawi
          2. Yanaca
          3. Pomo dilleri
        2. Vaşoca
        3. Salinan–Chumash
          1. Salinanca
          2. Çumaş dilleri
          3. Esselence
        4. Seri–Yuman
          1. Serice
          2. Yuma dilleri
        5. Waicuri–Quinigua
          1. Waicuri
          2. Maratino
          3. Quinigua
        6. Coahuiltecan
        7. Tequistlatec
        8. Subtiaba
        9. Jicaque
        10. Yurumangui
    3. Central Amerind
      1. Tano dilleri
      2. Uto-Aztek dilleri
      3. Oto-Mange dilleri
  2. Southern Amerind
    1. Andean–Chibchan–Paezan
      1. Chibchan–Paezan
        1. Macro-Chibchan
          1. Cuitlatec
          2. Lenca
          3. Chibchan
          4. Paya
          5. Tarascan
          6. Yanomam
          7. Yunca–Puruhan
        2. Macro-Paezan
          1. Allentiac
          2. Atacama
          3. Betoi
          4. Chimu–Mochita
          5. Itonama
          6. Jirajara
          7. Mura
          8. Paezan
          9. Timucua
          10. Warrao
      2. Andean
        1. Aymaraca
        2. Itucale–Sabela
          1. Itucale
          2. Mayna
          3. Sabela
        3. Cahuapana–Zaparo
          1. Cahuapana
          2. Zaparo
        4. Northern Andean
          1. Catacao
          2. Cholona
          3. Culli
          4. Leco
          5. Sechura
        5. Keçuva dilleri
        6. Southern Andean
          1. Qawasqar
          2. Mapudungu
          3. Gennaken
          4. Chon
          5. Yamana
    2. Equatorial–Tucanoan
      1. Equatorial
        1. Macro-Arawakan
        2. Cayuvava
        3. Coche
        4. Jivaro–Kandoshi
          1. Cofán
          2. Esmeralda
          3. Jivaro
          4. Kandoshi
          5. Yaruro
        5. KaririTupi
        6. Piaroa
        7. Taruma
        8. Timote
        9. Trumai
        10. Tusha
        11. Yuracaré
        12. Zamuco
      2. Macro-Tucanoan
        1. Auixiri
        2. Canichana
        3. Capixana
        4. Catuquina
        5. Gamella
        6. Huari
        7. Iranshe
        8. Kaliana–Maku
        9. Koaia
        10. Movima
        11. Muniche
        12. Nambikwara
        13. Natu
        14. Pankaruru
        15. Puinave
        16. Shukuru
        17. Ticuna–Yuri
        18. Tucanoan
        19. Uman
    3. Ge–Pano–Carib
      1. Macro-Carib
        1. Andoke
        2. Bora–Uitoto
        3. Carib
        4. Kukura [spurious]
        5. Yagua
      2. Macro-Panoan
        1. Charruan
        2. Lengua
        3. Lule–Vilela
        4. Mataco–Guaicuru
        5. Moseten
        6. Pano–Tacanan
      3. Macro-Gê
        1. Bororo dilleri
        2. Botocudo
        3. Caraja
        4. Chiquito
        5. Erikbatsa
        6. Fulnio
        7. Ge–Kaingang
        8. Guató
        9. Kamakan
        10. Mashakali
        11. Opaie
        12. Oti
        13. Puri
        14. Yabuti

Notlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ Campbell 1997
  2. ^ Poser & Campbell 2008
  3. ^ Adelaar 1989
  4. ^ Berman 1992
  5. ^ Chafe 1987
  6. ^ Matisoff 1990
  7. ^ Golla 1987
  8. ^ Golla 1988
  9. ^ Kimball 1992
  10. ^ Mithun 1999
  11. ^ Poser 1992
  12. ^ Rankin 1992

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Adelaar, Willem F. H. (1989). [Review of Greenberg, Language in the Americas]. Lingua, 78, 249-255.
  • Berman, Howard. (1992). A comment on the Yurok and Kalapuya data in Greenberg's Language in the Americas. International Journal of American Linguistics, 58 (2), 230-233.
  • Bonnichsen, Robson; & Steele, D. Gentry (Eds.). (1994). Method and theory for investigating the peopling of the Americas. Peopling of the Americas publications. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Center for the Study of the First Americans. ISBN 0-912933-09-7.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1988). [Review of Language in the Americas, Greenberg 1987]. Language, 64, 591-615.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; Poser, William J. (2008) Language Classification, History and Method, Cambridge University Press
  • Chafe, Wallace. (1987). [Review of Greenberg 1987]. Current Anthropology, 28, 652-653.
  • Delbrück, Berthold (1880), Einleitung in das Sprachstudium. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte und Methodik der vergleichenden Sprachforschung, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, OCLC: 3961260 
  • Goddard, Ives. (1987). [Review of Joseph Greenberg, Language in the Americas]. Current Anthropology, 28, 656-657.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1990). [Review of Language in the Americas by Joseph H. Greenberg]. Linguistics, 28, 556-558.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1996). The classification of native languages of North America. In I. Goddard (Ed.), Languages (pp. 290–323). Handbook of North Americans Indians (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives; & Campbell, Lyle. (1994). The history and classification of American Indian languages: What are the implications for the peopling of the Americas?. In R. Bonnichsen & D. Steele (Eds.), Method and theory for investigating the peopling of the Americas (pp. 189–207). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University.
  • Golla, Victor. (1987). [Review of Joseph H. Greenberg: Language in the Americas]. Current Anthropology, 28, 657-659.
  • Golla, Victor. (1988). [Review of Language in the Americas, by Joseph Greenberg]. American Anthropologist, 90, 434-435.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1960). General classification of Central and South American languages. In A. Wallace (Ed.), Men and cultures: Fifth international congress of anthropological and ethnological sciences (1956) (pp. 791–794). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas: Author's précis. Current Anthropology, 28, 647-652.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1989). Classification of American Indian languages: A reply to Campbell. Language, 65, 107-114.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1996). In defense of Amerind. International Journal of American Linguistics, 62, 131-164.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H.; Ruhlen, Merritt (2007) (PDF), An Amerind Etymological Dictionary, Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, http://www.merrittruhlen.com/files/AED5.pdf 
  • Kimball, Geoffrey. (1992). A critique of Muskogean, 'Gulf,' and Yukian materials in Language in the Americas. International Journal of American Linguistics, 58, 447-501.
  • Matisoff, James. (1990). On megalo-comparison: A discussion note. Language, 66, 106-120.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Nichols, Johanna (1992), Linguistic diversity in space and time, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-58056-3 
  • Poser, William J. (1992). The Salinan and Yurumanguí data in Language in the Americas. International Journal of American Linguistics, 58 (2), 202-229. PDF
  • Rankin, Robert. (1992). [Review of Language in the Americas by J. H. Greenberg]. International Journal of American Linguistics, 58 (3), 324-351.
  • Ringe, Don (2000). Some relevant facts about historical linguistics. In: Renfrew, Colin (Ed.), America Past, America Present: Genes and Languages in the Americas and Beyond (pp. 139–62). Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt (1994), "Evolution of Language", Macey, Sam, Encyclopedia of Time, New York: Garland Science, ISBN 0-8153-0615-6 
  • Ruhlen, Merritt (1994), "Linguistic Evidence for the Peopling of the Americas", Bonnichsen, Robson; Steele, D. Gentry, Method and Theory for Investigating the Peopling of the Americas, Corvallis, Oregon: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, ss. 177–188, ISBN 0-912933-09-7 
  • Ruhlen, Merritt (November 1994), "Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose", Mother Tongue (Newsletter of the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory) (23): 72–73, OCLC: 35315526 
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