ABD Kızılderilileri eyalet kabileleri

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ABD Kızılderilileri eyalet kabileleri ya da eyalet olarak tanınan ABD Kızılderili kabileleri veya kısaca eyalet kabilesi (İngilizce state recognized tribes), Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ne bağlı bazı eyaletler hariç Kıta ABD'sinde yaşayan ABD Kızılderililerinin oluşturduğu ve ABD'nin eyaletleri tarafından eyaletçe tanınan kabile birlikleridir ya da "kabile" (tribe) statüsü alan Kızılderililerin topluca resmi adlarıdır. Eyalet olarak değil de federal olarak tanınan kabileler ise ABD Kızılderilileri federal kabileleri adı altında listelenir.

Liste[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Alabama[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kaliforniya[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Kaliforniya has no formal policy with regard to the State Recognition of kabilenin . Some tribes have found sympathetic legislators to sponsor Assembly Joint Resolutions to urge the President to recognize their status as tribes; bununla birlikte,bu kabileler tanıtım başına bu tipten herhangi yararları yoktur

None

Connecticut[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Connecticut 'un Doğu Pequot Kabile Ulusu .2002 yılında İçişleri Bakanı tarafından tanınan; 2005'de yürürlükten kaldırılan tanıma; Doğu Pequot kabile Ulusu iki ulusun birleşmesi ile meydana geldi.Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut and Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut.[1][2][6][10][12]
  • Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  04/13/1982; Declined to acknowledge 9/26/1996; petitioner requested reconsideration from IBIA 12/26/1996; decision affirmed by IBIA subject to supplemental proceeding 6/10/1998; decision affirmed by IBIA 9/8/1998 with five procedural issues remanded to the Secretary; reconsidered final determination issued 5/24/1999; Proposed finding 01/29/2003 (68 FR 4507); Declined to acknowledge 6/21/2004 (69 FR 34388); Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 3/18/2005.[6][7][8][9][12][14][16]
  • Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  06/20/1989.[6][7][8][9][14] Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.[12][14]
  • Scaticook Bands[8][9]
    • Schaghticoke Tribe. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi 9/27/2001.[14]
  • Schaghticoke Indian Tribe (formerly Schaghticoke Tribal Nation). Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  12/14/1981; Declined to acknowledge in 2002; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60101.[1][2][6][7][8][9][10][12][14]

Delaware[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware[2]
  • Nanticoke Indian Association Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  08/08/1978; requested petition be placed on hold 3/25/1989,[6][7][8][9] of limited applicability[10][12][17]

Florida[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In Florida, the Governor's Council on Indian Affairs in 1988 adopted a policy which recommends that state officials refrain from recognizing any group not first acknowledged by the federal government. However, they have set a secondary set of recommendations for what the criteria for state recognition should be in case the state government should wish to bypass the first recommendation: "A state action should (1) create a government-to-government relationship between state and tribe, (2) set forth an explicit rendering of the state's interpretation of 'recognition,' (3) be confined only to groups descended from Seminole, Miccosukee, Creek, or a tribe located in Florida prior to May 30, 1830, and (4) meet federal criteria for recognition."[18] So far, Florida has recognized no tribes.

Georgia[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Per Title 44, Chapter 12, Article 7, Part 3 of the Georgia Code (O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007)), the State of Georgia "officially recognizes as legitimate American Indian tribes of Georgia the following tribes, bands, groups, or communities" for state purposes:

  • The Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council (a.k.a. Cherokee Indians of Georgia, Inc.)[5][10][19] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  08/08/1977.[7][8][9][12][14]
  • Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc.[10][19] (I). Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi 01/09/1979;[14] last submission February 2002; ready for Acknowledge review.[8][9][12]
Unrecognized tribes with the same name Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (II) and (III) exist.[5][7]

Kentucky[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky "While there is no legislative criteria for recognition of Indian tribes, Kentucky does recognize the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky as an Indian tribe at the state level. The Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky was first recognized via proclamation by Governor John Y. Brown in 1893 and again by Governor Fletcher on November 20, 2006. This tribe is headquartered in Henderson, Kentucky."[13][21][22][23][24][25][26] Letter of Intent to Petition 09/13/2006.[14]

Louisiana[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Adais Caddo Indians, Inc.[10][12] 1993 yılında Louisiana Devlet tarafından tanındı .[27] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  09/13/1993.[6][7][8][9][14]
  • Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee.[6][10] Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  10/24/1995.[7][14] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005.[27]
    • Bayou LaFourche Band
    • Grand Caillou/Dulac Band
    • Isle de Jean Charles Band
  • Choctaw-Apache Community of Ebarb, Inc.[10] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 07/02/1978.[6][7][8][9][12][14]
  • Clifton-Choctaw Indians (a.k.a. Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.)[10] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 03/22/1978.[6][7][8][9][12][14]
  • Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy [28] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997.[1][2][6][12][27]
  • Point-Au-Chien Tribe. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc..Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  7/22/1996.[1][2][7][14] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004.[27]
  • United Houma Nation[10] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972.[27] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  07/10/1979; Proposed Finding 12/22/1994, 59 FR 6618.[1][2][6][7][8][9][14] Denied federal recognition[12][20]

Maryland[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Executive Orders 01.01.2012.01 and 01.01.2012.02 recognized two Piscataway groups as state recognized tribes on January 9, 2012.

Massachusetts[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Chappquiddick Tribe of the Wampanog Indian Nation[30] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi 05/21/2007.[14]
  • Chaubunagungamaug Band of the Nipmuck Nation, Webster/Dudley.Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  04/22/1980 as part of Nipmuc Nation; separate letter of intent 5/31/1996; proposed finding was in progress.[7][8][9][10] Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35664; Reconsideration request before IBIA (not yet effective)[14][30]
  • Herring Pond Wampanoag Tribe[30]
  • Nipmuc Nation (Hassanamisco Band) Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  04/22/1980; formerly part of Nipmuc Nation (separated May 22, 1996); Proposed finding in progress.[6][7][8][9][10] Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35667; Reconsideration request before IBIA (not yet effective)[12][14][30]
  • Pocasset Wampanoag Tribe[30]
  • Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe[30]

In addition Wampanoags unaffiliated with the Mashpee or Aquinnah and tribal members from Maine tribes [formerly under Massachusetts jurisdiction till statehood in 1820] are represented by the State Commission on Indian Affairs[31]

Michigan[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Burt Lake Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians.[8][9][10][32] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  09/12/1985; Declined to acknowledge on 9/21/2006 (71 FR 57995).[14]
  • Grand River Bands of Ottawa Indians[8][9][10][32] (formerly Grand River Band Ottawa Council). Letter of Intent to Petition 10/16/1994.[14]
  • Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes.[8][9][10] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  05/04/1993 for independent federal recognition.[14] Currently recognized only as part of the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan.

Montana[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

New Jersey[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In addition, New Jersey recognizes the Inter-Tribal American Indians of New Jersey, an organization created circa 1980 to meet the needs of American Indians from across North and South America who are now living in New Jersey. The organization provides social activities and support to those Indians living in New Jersey and is dedicated to educating the public about American Indian culture and history.

New Mexico[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

In New Mexico, the State Constitution authorizes the State to recognize tribes other than those with federal recognition.[15]

  • Genízaro—Fray Agustín Morti, referring to the Genízaro Indians of Analco (a Santa Fe barrio) in 1779, gave the following precise and correct definition of them: "This name is given to the children of the captives of different [Indian] nations who have married in the province."[33] In 2007, Genízaros received New Mexico state legislative recognition as an indigenous group.[34] Although New Mexico's Legislative Memorial bills do not have the force of law, HM 40 and SM 59 formally acknowledge the legislative desire to recognize Genízaros as an indigenous group.[35] This is an important step in sustaining State and Federal Genízaro Indian recognition. Some American Indian law scholars have opined that state legislative memorials and/or resolutions create official state recognition.[36] Of the 16 states that host state-recognized tribes, 5 have recognized tribes through the enactment of state legislative resolutions/memorials, suggesting this legislative recognition process is an appropriate means for granting formal state recognition.[37]

New York[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

North Carolina[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

There is also an Unrecognized tribe with the same name, Meherrin Indian Tribe (II).

South Carolina[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Section 1 31 40(A)(10), South Carolina Code of Laws (Annotated) provides that “The South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs shall promulgate regulations as may be necessary regarding State Recognition of Native American Indian entities in the State of South Carolina.” These rules and regulations shall be applicable to all entities seeking Native American Indian State Recognition as a: A. Native American Indian Tribe;[42] B. Native American Indian Group;[43] C. Native American Special Interest Organization.[44]

State-recognized Tribes:

  • Beaver Creek Indians. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  01/26/1998.[14] State recognized tribe in 2006.[45][46][47]
  • Edisto Natchez-Kusso Indians (Four Holes Indian Organization), state recognized tribe in 2010.[9][10][45][47]
  • Pee Dee Nation of Upper South Carolina.Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  12/14/2005.[14] State recognized tribe in 2005.[45][46][47]
  • Pee Dee Tribe of South Carolina, state recognized tribe in 2006.[10][45][46][47]
  • Santee Indian Organization (formerly White Oak Indian Community).Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  06/04/1979.[14] State recognized tribe in 2006.[9][10][45][46][47]
  • Waccamaw Indian People, state recognized tribe in 2005.[10][45][46][47]
  • Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians, state recognized tribe in 2010.[9][10][45][47]

State-recognized tribal Groups:

  • Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi 08/14/2002.[14] Receipt of Petition 08/14/2002.[48] State recognized tribal group in 2005.[45][46][47]
  • Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc. (a.k.a. Cherokee Indian Tribe of South Carolina or ECSIUT), state recognized tribal group in 2005.[5][45][47]
  • Natchez Indian Tribe, state recognized tribal group in 2007.[45][47]
  • Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  6/16/1999.[14] State recognized tribal group in 2007.[45][47]
  • Piedmont American Indian Association of South Carolina (or Piedmont American Indian Association - Lower Eastern Cherokee Nation of South Carolina) Letter of Intent to Petition 8/20/1998.[14] State recognized tribal group in 2006.[45][46][47]

State-recognized tribal Special Interest Organization:

  • American Indian Chamber of Commerce of South Carolina, state recognized tribal Special Interest Organization in 2006.[45][47]
  • Little Horse Creek American Indian Cultural Center, state recognized tribal Special Interest Organization in 2010.[45][47]

Tennessee[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

The "Etowah Cherokee Nation" was recognized "as a nation of people" by Proclamation of Governor Ray Blanton on 25 May 1978. The group's tribal recognition was rejected in a legal opinion by the 1991 administration "absent statutory authority" of the governor to recognize certain Native Americans as a "nation of people."[49]

Tennessee Code authorized the state Commission of Indian Affairs from 1983 to 2000 and from 2003 to 2010 to "establish appropriate procedures to provide for legal recognition by the state of presently unrecognized tribes, nations, groups, communities or individuals, and to provide for official state recognition by the commission of such."[50]

On 19 June 2010, 11 days prior to its termination, six members of the seven-member Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs, four of whom were members of the same groups seeking the Commission's recognition, violated its administrative procedures, adopted a new standing rule recognition procedure, and proceeded to approve state recognition of six groups. However, the state Attorney General, as the Commission's attorney, determined that the Commission committed six violations of the state's Open Meeting Act, Open Record Act and Uniform Administrative Procedures Act, and declared the June recognition "void and of no effect" on 3 September 2010.[51][52][53]

Teksas[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Vermont[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

As of May 3, 2006, Vermont law 1 V.S.A §§ 851–853 recognizes Abenakis as Native American Indians, not the tribes or bands. However, on April 22, 2011, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signed legislative bills officially recognizing two Abenaki Bands.

On May 7, 2012 Governor Shumlim signed legislative bills officially recognizing two more Abenaki Bands:

  • Traditional Koasek Abenaki Nation of the Koas (Koasek Abenaki Tribe[2])
  • Missisquoi St Francis Sokoki Abenaki Nations (Mississquoi Abenaki Tribe[2]). The four Abenaki state-recognized tribes are also knows as the Abenaki Alliance.

Virginia[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe. Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  12/30/2002.[14] Receipt of Petition 12/30/2002.[48] State recognized 2010; in Courtland, Southampton County.[55]
  • Chickahominy Tribe.[1][2][6][8][9][10][12][21] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  03/19/1996.[14] State recognized 1983; in Charles City County.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]
  • Chickahominy Indians, Eastern Division (a.k.a. Eastern Chickahominy Indian Tribe).[6][8][9][10][12][13][21] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  9/6/2001.[14] State recognized, 1983; in New Kent County.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]
  • Mattaponi Tribe (a.k.a. Mattaponi Indian Reservation).[6][10] Letter of Intent to Petition 04/04/1995.[14] State recognized 1983; in Banks of the Mattaponi River, King William County.[55] The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial-era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658. Pamunkey Tribe's attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 17th century and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year, and they've done that (replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Virginia became a Commonwealth)[12][56]
  • Monacan Indian Nation (formerly Monacan Indian Tribe of Virginia).[1][2][6][8][9][10][12][13] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  07/11/1995.[14] State recognized 1989; in Bear Mountain, Amherst County.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]
  • Nansemond Indian Tribal Association,[6][8][9][10][12][13][21] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  9/20/2001.[14] State recognized 1985; in Cities of Suffolk and Chesapeake.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]
  • Nottoway of Virginia (Nottoway Indian Tribe,[2] recognized 2010; in Capron, Southampton County.[55]
  • Pamunkey Nation,[6][8][9][10][12] recognized 1983; in Banks of the Pamunkey River, King William County.[55]
  • Patawomeck Indians of Virginia recognized 2010; in Stafford County.[55]
  • Rappahannock Indian Tribe (I) (formerly United Rappahannock Tribe).[6][8][9][10][12][21] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  11/16/1979.[14] State recognized 1983; in Indian Neck, King & Queen County.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]
Shares a name with an unrecognized tribe Rappahannock Indian Tribe (II).
  • Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe (formerly Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribal Association).[1][2][6][8][9][10][12] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi 11/26/1979.[14] State recognized 1983; in King William County.[55] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[40]

Washington[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon & Washington, Inc. (Chinook Nation,[1] Chinook Indian Tribe[2])[8][9][11][21] Niyet Mektubu Dilekçesi  07/23/1979; Declined to acknowledge 07/12/2003 (67 FR 46204).[14] Also in Oregon.

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v State Recognized Indian Tribes (2010-2011). National Congress of American Indians (Accessible as of February 9, 2011 here).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "List of Federal and State Recognized Tribes: State Recognized Tribes (2011)". National Conference of State Legislatures (Retrieved 5 Aug 2012). http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/tribal/list-of-federal-and-state-recognized-tribes.aspx#State. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h NEAR Small Business Development Center. "Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama". http://mis.uah.edu/SBDC/procurement/tribesrecognized.htm. Erişim tarihi: 2011-02-09. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. "Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama". http://aiac.state.al.us/tribes.aspx. Erişim tarihi: 2011-02-09. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Cherokee Nation (Fraudulent Indian) Task Force: Fraudulent Group List (as of June 23, 2010) (Accessible as of June 28, 2010 here)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "Tribes & Nations: State Recognized Tribes". http://www.manataka.org/page100.html. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s 500nations.com. "Petitions for Federal Recognition". http://500nations.com/tribes/Tribes_Petitions.asp. Erişim tarihi: 2007-09-07. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Troy Johnson. "U.S. Federally Non-Recognized Indian Tribes". http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/tribesnonrec.html. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "U.S. Federally Non-Recognized Tribes". http://www.manataka.org/page237.html. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Wild Apache. "Wild Apache Native American Portal". http://www.wildapache.net/NativeAmericanSite/. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Karen M. Strom. "A Line in the Sand: Contact Information for the Tribes of the United States and Canada". http://www.hanksville.org/sand/contacts/tribal/index.html. Erişim tarihi: 2007-09-10. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am NativeData.com. "Roster of State Recognized Tribes, 2006". http://www.nativedata.com/roster-pages/staterecognized.htm. Erişim tarihi: 2009-05-26. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h USA.gov. "A-Z Index of Tribal Governments, on USA.gov". http://www.usa.gov/Government/Tribal_Sites/index.shtml. Erişim tarihi: 2010-09-12. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay LIST OF PETITIONERS BY STATE (as of July 31, 2012) (Accessible as of January 15, 2013 here)
  15. ^ a b c Sheffield (1998) p64
  16. ^ Sheffield (1998) p65
  17. ^ Sheffield (1998) p66
  18. ^ Sheffield (1998) p63-64
  19. ^ a b c http://www.legis.state.ga.us/cgi-bin/gl_codes_detail.pl?code=44-12-300 O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007)
  20. ^ a b Sheffield (1998) p67
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i 500nations.com. "Nations, Tribes, Bands". http://500nations.com/500_Tribes.asp. Erişim tarihi: 2008-09-28. 
  22. ^ "Henderson recognizes Southern Cherokee Nation." State Journal. 25 Feb 2009. Retrieved 25 Jan 2011.
  23. ^ "National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) and its implications in Kentucky". kentucky.gov, updated 9-2-2010. http://courts.ky.gov/aoc/juvenile/recentnewsletter.htm. 
  24. ^ John Y. Brown: Governor. Commonwealth of Kentucky
  25. ^ Ernie Fletcher: Governor. Commonwealth of Kentucky
  26. ^ City of Henderson Proclamation
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Louisiana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs" Retrieved on 4/8/2008.
  28. ^ "Four Winds Tribe website"
  29. ^ a b Witte, Brian. "Md. Formally Recognizes 2 American Indian Groups." NBC Washington. 9 Jan 2011. Retrieved 10 Jan 2011.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Massachusetts Center for Native American Awareness
  31. ^ Michael S. Dukakis. "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 126 - Massachusetts Native Americans". http://www.lawlib.state.ma.us/ExecOrders/eo126.txt. 
  32. ^ a b Michigan Department of Human Services. "State Historic Tribes". http://www.michigan.gov/dhs/0,1607,7-124-5452_7124_7209-21045--,00.html. 
  33. ^ Fray Angelo Chavez, "Genízaros", Handbook of North American Indians (Smithsonian Institution, 1979), Vol. 9, pg. 198
  34. ^ See House Memorial 40 (HM40), "Genizaros, In Recognition" and Senate Memorial 59 (SM59), "Genizaros, In Recognition," 2007 New Mexico State Legislature, Regular Session.
  35. ^ See New Mexico Legistature: Glossary of Legislative Terms—General Legislative and Financial Terms
  36. ^ Cohen, Felix S. Cohen's handbook of federal Indian law. 2005 ed. Newark, NJ : LexisNexis, c2005. KF8205 .C6 2005, Sec. 3.02(9) at 171.
  37. ^ Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States", University of Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48 (2008) pg. 107.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g North Carolina Department of Administration (February 2007). "North Carolina American Indian Tribes and Organizations" (PDF). http://www.doa.state.nc.us/cia/tribes.pdf. 
  39. ^ a b Sheffield (1998) p68-70
  40. ^ a b c d e f g "Virginia tribes take another step on road to federal recognition" in Richmond Times-Dispatch, Wednesday, October 28, 2009.
  41. ^ North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs
  42. ^ “Native American Indian Tribe” means an assembly of Indian people comprising numerous families, clans, or generations together with their descendents, who have a common character, interest, and behavior denoting a separate ethnic and cultural heritage, and who have existed as a separate community, on a substantially continuous basis throughout the past 100 years. In general, core members of the tribe are related to each other by blood. A tribal council and governmental authority unique to Native American Indians govern them.
  43. ^ “Native American Group” means a number of individuals assembled together, which have different characteristics, interests and behaviors that do not denote a separate ethnic and cultural heritage today, as they once did. The group is composed of both Native American Indians and other ethnic races. They are not all related to one another by blood. A tribal council and governmental authority unique to Native American Indians govern them
  44. ^ “Native American Special Interest Organization” means an assembly of people who have united for the common purpose of promoting Native American culture and addressing socio-economic deprivation among people of Indian origin. The organization is made up of Native American Indians and other ethnic races. A tribal council or other form of governing body provides oversight and management. Membership is not required. They may be organized as a private nonprofit corporation under the laws of South Carolina.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. "SC tribes and groups" (PDF). http://www.state.sc.us/cma/pdfs/s_c_tribes_and_groups.pdf. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f g South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission. "Members". http://southcarolinaindianaffairs.com/members.html. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n South Carolina Indigenous Gallery. "Visitors Center". http://scindigenousgallery.com. 
  48. ^ a b Receipt of Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment of Existence as an Indian Tribe (68 FR 13724)
  49. ^ Chattanooga InterTribal Association. "TN Tribal Recognition - past example". http://cita.chattanooga.org/etowahcherokee1978.html. 
  50. ^ T.C.A. 4-34-103(6)
  51. ^ Tennessee Attorney General [1]/"Mark Greene v. Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs"]
  52. ^ Humphrey, Tom. "6 Indian groups lose state recognition: Court order says commission violated open meetings law." Knoxville News Sentinel. 3 Sep 2010 (retrieved 3 Sep 2010)
  53. ^ Tennessee Attorney General Court Order 7 Sep 2010
  54. ^ a b Vermonters Concerned on Native American Affairs. "Tribal Sites VT". http://vcnaa.com/native/content/view/510/57/. Erişim tarihi: 2011-12-28. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Virginia Council on Indians. "Virginia Tribes". http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes/index.cfm. 
  56. ^ Sheffield (1998) p71-73