İki ruhlu

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İki ruh (İngilizce Two-spirit < Ojibva niizh manidoowag teriminin harfiyen çevirisidir), Kanada Kızılderilileri ile ABD Kızılderililerinde kabul edilen ama birçok Batı Kültüründe olmayan Kuzey Amerika topluluklarında görülen üçüncü cinsiyet modeline verilen addır. Two Spirit, iki ruhun bir bedende birleşmiş olması durumudur. 1990'lı yıllarda antropolojik literatürde kullanılan Berdache (< Fransızca < Arapça البَرْدَجُ) kelimesi ayrımcı algılandığı için daha sonra bu terim kullanılmaya başlandı.

Kuzey Amerika Kızılderililerinde 130 kabilede erkek ve kadın iki-ruhlu kavram ve geleneği kaydedilmiştir[1].

Adlandırma[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Toplum görevi[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

„Dance to the berdache“, George Catlin (1796-1872) tarafından oluşturulan bir tablo. Ritüel bir dansta bir Berdache kutlanmakta.

Kuzey Amerika Kızılderililerinde iki-ruh ya da iki-ruhlu olarak kabul edilen kişiler tek vücutta erkek ve kadın ruhlarının her ikisini de sergileyen kişilerdir. Bunlar genelde geleneksel erkek ve kadın maddelerinin bir karışımıdır. Bazı kabilelerde erkek gövdeli iki-ruhlar toplum yararına özel görevler üstlenirler:

Bibliyografya[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  • Cameron, Michelle. (2005). Two-spirited Aboriginal people: Continuing cultural appropriation by non-Aboriginal society. Canadian Women Studies, 24 (2/3), 123–127.
  • Conley, Craig. Oracle of the twofold deities.
  • Hawkins, Philip Colin. (2012). New World Sodom: Biblical Tales of Conquest and Acculturation. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 15. http://ejhs.org/volume15/NewWorld.html
  • Hemmilä, Anita. (2005). Ancestors of two-spirits: Representations of Native American third-gender males in historical documentation, A Critical Discourse Analysis in Anthropology, A Pro Gradu Thesis in English
  • Jacobs, Sue-Ellen; Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang (Eds.). (1997). Two-spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality, and spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02344-7, ISBN 0-252-06645-6.
  • Lang, Sabine. (1998). Men as women, women as men: Changing gender in Native American cultures. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74700-4, ISBN 0-292-74701-2.
  • Medicine, Beatrice. (1997). Changing Native American roles in an urban context and changing Native American sex roles in an urban context. In S.-E. Jacobs, W. Thomas, & S. Lang (Eds.) (pp. 145–148).
  • Roscoe, Will. (1991). The Zuni man-woman. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1253-5.
  • Roscoe, Will. (1998). Changing ones: Third and fourth genders in native North America. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-17539-6.
  • Roscoe, Will; & Gay American Indians. (1988). Living the spirit: A gay American Indian anthology. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-01899-1.
  • Schaeffer, Claude E. (1965). The Kutenai female berdache. Ethnohistory, 12 (3), 193–236.
  • Schultz, James W. (1916). Blackfeet tales of Glacier National Park. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Schultz, James W. (1919). Running Eagle, the warrior girl. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Spanbauer, Tom. (1991). The man who fell in love with the moon: A novel. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-468-3.
  • Trexler, Richard C. (1995). Sex and conquest: Gendered violence, political order, and the European conquest of the Americas. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3224-3.
  • Williams, Walter L. (1986). The spirit and the flesh: Sexual diversity in American Indian cultures. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-4602-7.
  • Williams, Walter L. & Toby Johnson. (2006) Two Spirits: A Story of Life With the Navajo. Maple Shade, NJ: Lethe Press. ISBN 1-59021-060-3
  • Qwo-Li Driskill, Chris Finley, Brian Joseph Gilley, and Scott Lauria Morgensen, Eds. (2011) Queer Indigenous Studies: Critical Interventions in Theory, Politics, and Literature. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Wolf, Rope. Two-spirit: Belonging (Film)

Kaynakça[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

  1. ^ Roscoe, Will (1991). The Zuni Man-Woman, p.5. ISBN 0-8263-1253-5.
  2. ^ Jocelyn Baird, Just Semantics? The Battle Between Two-spirit and Berdache
  3. ^ a b c d e f Anita Hemmilä (2005), Ancestors of two-spirits: Representations of Native American third-gender males in historical documentation, A Critical Discourse Analysis in Anthropology, A Pro Gradu Thesis in English
  4. ^ Burrus, Virginia & Keller, Catherine (2006). Toward a theology of eros: transfiguring passion at the limits of discipline Transdisciplinary theological colloquia. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2636-0, ISBN 978-0-8232-2636-8. p. 73.
  5. ^ Conner, Sparks, and Sparks, eds. (1997) Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit: Covering Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Lore.
  6. ^ Lang, S. (1997). Various kinds of Two-Spirit people: Gender variance and homosexuality in Native American communities. In Jacobs, S., Thomas, W., & Lang, S. (Eds.) Two-Spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality, and spirituality (pp.100-118). Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  7. ^ De Solis, Fray Gaspar José. Diary, 1767. (Op.cit. "Karankawa".)